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Bio171-F10-Lec 13 - Biology 171 Friday October 8 2010...

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Announcements Next Week in Discussion: Ecology simulations (in SLC) Text Reading: Lecture 13: 4 th : Chapter 51 (1031-1035) 3 rd : Chapter 51 (1167-1170) Lecture 14: 4 th : Chapter 52 (1037-1055) 3 rd : Chapter 52 (1173-1193) Optimal Foraging, Crows & Honey Bees Bird Migration (concluded) Anisogamy Mating Systems Social Acts and Altruism Kin Selection and Eusociality Biology 171 Friday, October 8, 2010 Lecture 13: Behavioral Ecology 2 - Reproduction
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http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VjE0Kdfos4Y Continuous Song Learning: Superb Lyrebird 14
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Learned Behavior may be culturally transmitted from generation to generation. For instance East African chimps transmit termite feeding skills to their young. 15
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Young chimpanzees learning to crack oil palm nuts by observing older chimpanzees. Isolated populations may evolve distinct cultures, e.g ., using stone tools to crack palm nuts is found in some West African chimp populations and not others. This cultural trait is an ancient one in these populations, going back thousands of years Ancient chimps 'used stone tools' Chimpanzees in West Africa used stone tools to crack nuts 4,300 years ago 16
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Can Animals Think? Cognition is the recognition and manipulation of facts about the world and the ability to form concepts and insights. New Caledonian crows can make tools and solve complex problems, which suggests that they can think 17
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Complex Learned Behavior New Caledonian Crow Inventive tool making where tools, often made from leaf stems, are individually shaped for specific tasks. 18
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Optimal foraging theory The basis for analyzing behavior as a compromise of feeding costs versus feeding benefits. Foraging Behavior necessary to recognize, search for, capture, and consume food. Crows feeding on marine mollusks drop them onto hard surfaces repeatedly until the shells crack. They typically use the most efficient drop height. 19
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Energy costs and benefits in foraging behavior . Experimental results indicate that dropping shells from a height of 5 m results in breakage with the least amount of work. The actual drop height preferred by crows corresponds almost exactly to the height that minimizes total flight height. 20
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Group Foraging Communication: The Honeybee Dance Karl von Frisch discovered that honey bees perform two types of “dances” to fellow workers that contained information about the location of food. Round Dance : food in immediate vicinity of the hive; Waggle Dance : food at a given direction and distance from the hive.
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