Bio171-F10-Lec 32 - Biology 171 Wednesday December 1 2010...

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Biology 171 Wednesday, December 1, 2010 Announcements Text Reading Vertebrate Evolution (concluded) Overview of Land Plant Diversity Fossil Record Terrestrial Adaptations Evolution of Angiosperms (Flowers & Fruit); Pollination Insect Pollinator & Angiosperm Coevolution This week’s discussion: Ant-fungal coevolution 1 Lecture 32 : 4th: Chapter 31 (579-598) 3rd: Chapter 31 (664-677) Lecture 33 : 4th: Chapter 30 (546-577); Ch. 33 (639-641) 3rd: Chapter 30 (626-661); Ch. 33 (731-733)
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Jaws were a big hit – almost all living vertebrates have them! 7
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The frst CarboniFerous Tetrapods were small and limited to swampy environments. Large size evolved quickly 22
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Some Permian and Triassic Amphibians grew to large size, e.g. Eryops at 2m long 23
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Typical Modern Amphibian Life Cycle - Mating and Early Development Remains Aquatic 24
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Becoming Fully Terrestrial - Evolution of the Amniota 25
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The Amniota is a lineage of vertebrates that includes all tetrapods except the amphibians; they are named for their adaptation of the amniotic egg as a reproductive structure. The evolution of the amniotic egg was significant because it gave vertebrates the ability to reproduce far from water. An amniotic egg has a watertight shell or case enclosing a membrane-bound food supply, water supply, and waste repository. 26
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The Amniotic Egg Amniotic eggs have shells that minimize water loss as the embryo, bathed in liquid, develops inside. In addition to a largely watertight shell, the amniotic egg contains a membrane-bound supply of water in a protein-rich solution called albumen . The embryo is enveloped in a protective inner membrane, or amnion . The yolk sac is a membranous pouch that contains nutrients for the growing embryo, and the allantois is a membranous pouch that holds waste materials. A middle membrane, the chorion , separates the amnion, yolk sac, and allantois from the albumen and provides a surface where gas exchange between the embryo and the surrounding air can take place ( Figure 34.19 ). 27
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28 Fig. 34.19
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Early Amniota are diagnosed primarily by their bones in the fossil record - fossil eggs are very rare - note that mammals originally were egg layers too - and some still are…. 29
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Some Synapomorphies of Mammals Mammary Glands; Hair NOT PRESERVED IN THE FOSSIL RECORD 30
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Monotremata (3 species) egg laying mammals; Australian region, Platypus lower metabolic rate than other mammals body temp. 31-32˚C Echidna Spiny anteater 31
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The eutherian placenta develops not from the yolk sac (as in marsupials), but from the chorion and allantois . It is a much larger and long-lasting structure, nourishing the growing fetus for many months to the point where it is often born (in some species) close to being fully functional. 36
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Bio171-F10-Lec 32 - Biology 171 Wednesday December 1 2010...

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