Bio171-F10-Lec 35 - Biology 171 Wednesday, December 8, 2010...

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Biology 171 Wednesday, December 8, 2010 Lecture 35: Conservation Biology Announcements Human evolution (concluded) Importance of Biodiversity Prairie, Oceanic Islands, Freshwater & Tropical Rainforests Poster Species - 100 Heartbeat Club Text Reading Lecture 35 : 4th: Chapter 55 (1110-1123) 3rd: Chapter 55 (1249-1260) Lecture 36 : 4th: Chapter 50 (1013-1017) 3rd: Chapter 50 (1144-1146) Ch. 55 (1250-1252) 1 Discussion This Week: Selection on Human Populations Exam 4: Monday, Dec. 20, 7-9 PM. Covers lectures 28 (viruses) – 37 & discussions 9-11 (phylogeny reconstruction, Ant-fungal coevolution, Selection on human populations Exam review: Sunday, Dec 19 Time & place TBA
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Human family tree 23
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H. heidelbergensis Evolved in Africa and established populations in Eurasia H. neanderthalensis (Europe and Western Asia) H. sapiens Africa; now worldwide 24
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The Multiregional Continuity Model of human evolution contends that after Homo erectus left Africa and dispersed into other portions of the Old World, regional populations slowly evolved into modern humans. The Replacement Model (Recent African Origin): The alternative to the multiregional continuity model is the replacement model, in which the populations of Homo erectus that moved to Europe and to North and South Asia died out without evolving into Homo sapiens. All existing Homo sapiens are the result of the evolution from Homo erectus in Africa, followed by the migration of these people out of Africa less than 100 kya. 25
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neanderthalis/sapiens ? By 2007, a number of mitochondrial DNA sequences were available for Neanderthals – they suggested Neanderthals were phylogenetically distinct from modern humans 26
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Flute? 28
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26 October 2007: Vol. 318. no. 5850, pp. 546 - 547 Ancient DNA Reveals Neandertals With Red Hair, Fair Complexions Some Neandertals had red hair and pale skin, as seen in this reconstruction of a French fossil. MC1R is a pigment cell membrane receptor that helps regulate the balance between red-and-yellow-colored pheomelanin and black-and-brown-colored eumelanin. Living people with variations that make the receptor work poorly tend to have red hair and pale skin, although other pigmentation genes also have strong e f ects The researchers found a point mutation not seen in living humans. Next, they explored the variant's function by expressing it in human cells and found that it impaired the receptor's activity. "If you have a variant with this low action in modern humans, you get red hair and pale skin" in homozygotes, people with two copies of the variant, says team member Michael Hofreiter of the Max Planck Institute in Leipzig. 29
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Bio171-F10-Lec 35 - Biology 171 Wednesday, December 8, 2010...

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