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Lecture 3-Prenatal Development_2011_Student_slides

Lecture 3-Prenatal Development_2011_Student_slides -...

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Conception and Prenatal Development Lecture 3 January 19, 2011
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Gene-Environment Interactions 3. Genetic-environmental correlations – our genes  influence our environment § Passive genotype/environment correlations  -  parents provide environment influenced by own  heredity § Evocative genotype/environment correlations   - child’s genotype elicits certain types of  environments § Niche-picking  - individuals seek out  environments most compatible w/ their genetic  predispositions Ø Role of age – niche-picking becomes more prominent as chn get older
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Lecture Overview Goal: To describe the events that lead from the  formation of a single cell (conception) to an  amazing newborn baby Stages of prenatal development Germinal, Embryonic, Fetal Focus on brain development Video Risks to fetal health
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Ovulation – The moment during a woman’s monthly cycle  when the ovum (egg) is expelled from the ovary.  Brief window for conception Ovum survives 24-48 hours Sperm cells survive 2-5/6 days Fertilization - union of sperm & ovum; conception Usually occurs in a fallopian tube Conception
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Genetics of Fertilization Almost all human cells contain  46 chromosomes  Ovum and sperm each contain  23 chromosomes Fertilized egg contains a  unique  set of 46 (23 from  each parent)
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Stages of Prenatal Development Germinal period (0 to ~ 2 wks)  -  lasts  from fertilization to full implantation  (when the cell mass attaches to the  uterus wall).   § Zygote Ø Fertilized egg Ø Dividing cells Ø Takes 3 days to go down fallopian tube to the uterus Ø When it reaches the uterus, it becomes a blastocyst § Blastocyst  – hollow, 100-cell ball Ø Forming layers Ø Cell mass moves down uterus and implants in wall
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Events of the Germinal Stage Ovary Fallopian tube
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Germinal Stage continued Implantation  – when the  blastocyst becomes  imbedded into the uterus  wall Embryonic disk  - cells on  inside – become new  organism Trophoblast  - outer layer of  cells-  will develop into  life-support systems
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Germinal Stage continued
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