CTools011211lecture04

CTools011211lecture04 - Biology 172 Lecture 4: Wednesday,...

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Lecture 4: Wednesday, January 12, 2011 Biology 172 Today’s Outline Announcements • This Week in Discussion:  Extremophiles, quiz on lectures 1-3 • No lecture on Monday - go to MLK  Day activities!! Proteins - Levels of Protein Structure - Determinants of Protein Structure Energy - Free energy and ∆G - Exergonic reactions - Endergonic reactions - Activation Energy Catalysts
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Figure 3.3 Nonpolar side chains Polar side chains Electrically charged side chains No charged or electro- negative atoms to form hydrogen bonds; not soluble in water Partial charges can form hydrogen bonds; soluble in water Charged side chains form hydrogen bonds; highly soluble in water Aspartate (D) Asp Glutamate (E) Glu Lysine (K) Lys Arginine (R) Arg Histidine (H) His Basic Acidic Threonine (T) Thr Cysteine (C) Cys Tyrosine (Y) Tyr Asparagine (N) Asn Glutamine (Q) Gln Proline (P) Pro Tryptophan (W) Trp Phenylalanine (F) Phe Methionine (M) Met Serine (S) Ser Glycine (G) Gly Alanine (A) Ala Valine (V) Val Leucine (L) Leu Isoleucine (I) Ile
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Figure 3.8 (a) Polypeptide chain N-terminus Amino group Amino acids joined by peptide bonds Side chains b) Numbering system N-terminus 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Gly Ala Ser Asp Phe Val Tyr Cys C-terminus C-terminus Peptide- bonded backbone Carboxyl group 1. Primary structure – linear sequence of amino acids - held together by covalent bonds (peptide bonds) between the amino acids
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O C  helix  pleated sheet Amino acid subunits N C H C O C N H C O H R C N H C O H C R N H H R C O R C H N H C O H N C O R C H N H H C R C O H C R N H C O C C O C N H H R C C O N H H C R C O N H R C H C O N H H C R C O N H R C H C O N H H C R C O N H R C H C O N H C N H H C R N H O O C N C R C H H O C H R N H O C R C H N H O C H C R N H C C N R H H O C H C R N H O C R C H Protein Structure 2. Secondary structure – interactions between atoms in backbone - held together by hydrogen bonds - generate coiled or folded regions
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Figure 3.11 Hydrogen bonds form between peptide chains. Secondary structures of proteins result. -helix
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CTools011211lecture04 - Biology 172 Lecture 4: Wednesday,...

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