CTools021811lecture18 - Biology 172 Lecture 18 Friday...

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Lecture 18: Friday, February 18, 2011 Biology 172 Today’s Outline Announcements Monday, February 21 Review in class Exam 2, 6-8 pm, 150 pts Discussion next week: Cell Signaling Translation - Overview - Types of RNA - The Genetic Code - tRNA Structure/Function - Aminoacyl tRNA synthetases - Ribosomes - Initiation - Elongation - Termination - Post-translational Modification Mutations
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The Expression Function of DNA How is a nucleic acid “language” converted into a protein “language”?
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Translation – Basic Features - synthesis of a polypeptide using information in RNAs - carried out by a ribosome - occurs in the cytosol
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Translation – Requires 3 Types of RNA mRNA (messenger) – specifies the sequence of amino acids in a protein rRNA (ribosomal RNA) – component of ribosomes tRNA (transfer RNA) – links nucleic acid information to amino acids
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The triplet code is non-overlapping and continuous DNA molecule Gene 1 Gene 2 Gene 3 DNA strand (template) TRANSCRIPTION mRNA Protein TRANSLATION Amino acid A C C A A A C C G A G T U G G U U U G G C U C A Trp Phe Gly Ser Codon 3 5 3 5 3 nucleotides in mRNA = 1 codon
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Fig 15.6 The Genetic Code: the relationship between nucleotide sequence and amino acid sequence SECOND BASE FIRST BASE Phenylalanine (Phe) Leucine (Leu) Leucine (Leu) Isoleucine (Ile) Methionine (Met) Start codon Valine (Val) Alanine (Ala) Threonine (Thr) Proline (Pro) Serine (Ser) Tyrosine (Tyr) Stop codon Stop codon Histidine (His) Glutamine (Glu) Asparagine (Asn) Lysine (Lys) Aspartic acid (Asp) Glutamic acid (Glu) Stop codon Serine (Ser) Glycine (Gly) Arginine (Arg) Arginine (Arg) Tryptophan (Trp) Cysteine (Cys) T H I R D B A S E - is a triplet code - is non-overlapping and continuous - has no ambiguity - has some redundancy
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Fig 15.8 The Genetic Code SECOND BASE FIRST BASE Phenylalanine (Phe) Leucine (Leu) Leucine (Leu) Isoleucine (Ile) Methionine (Met) Start codon Valine (Val) Alanine (Ala) Threonine (Thr) Proline (Pro) Serine (Ser) Tyrosine (Tyr) Stop codon Stop codon Histidine (His) Glutamine (Glu) Asparagine (Asn) Lysine (Lys) Aspartic acid (Asp) Glutamic acid (Glu) Stop codon Serine (Ser) Glycine (Gly) Arginine (Arg) Arginine (Arg) Tryptophan (Trp) Cysteine (Cys) T H I R D B A S E - includes a specific start codon - includes three stop codons - is (nearly) universal
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Today’s Outline Translation - Overview - Types of RNA - The Genetic Code - tRNA Structure/Function - Aminoacyl tRNA synthetases - Ribosomes - Initiation - Elongation - Termination - Post-translational Modification Mutations
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Amino acid attachment site Hydrogen bonds Anticodon Anticodon A A G 5 3 3 5 3 A C C A C G C U U A A G A C A C C U G C * G U G U C U GA G G U A A A G U C A G A C C C G A G A G G G G A C U C A U U U A G G C G 5 Amino acid attachment site Hydrogen bonds Anticodon * * * * * * * * * * * Structure and Function of tRNA - short RNAs with intramolecular base pairing
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