lecture 19 W11 - Todays topics 1) Introduction to cell...

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Unformatted text preview: Todays topics 1) Introduction to cell signaling 2) G-protein coupled receptor signaling 3) Receptor tyrosine kinase signaling 4) Emphasizing the difference between protein kinases and G-proteins 5) Preparation for this weeks discussion Lecture 19 (2/23/11) - Cell-cell signaling Molecules; Chemical bonds; Free energy Lipids Amino acids nucleotides carbohydrates membranes proteins Membrane transport Membrane proteins cytoskeleton enzymes DNA RNA Metabolism Sugar transport Electrolyte transport Kidney Nerve cells Muscle & movement Transporters and pumps Receptors Cell-cell communication Chemical signaling development Replication transcription translation Glycolysis Fermentation Krebs cycle Photo- Synthesis & Calvin cycle Cell cycle Regulation of transcription biotechnology genomics Microbes & viruses Biology 172 flowchart (lecture 20) Cell-cell signaling- cells release signaling molecules that are recognized by specific receptors e.g., steroid hormones This type of short-range signaling is very important during development and in tissue maintenance Four general types of signaling Synaptic signaling is essential for nervous systems to function Endocrine signaling is essential for organism-wide physiology While steroid hormone signaling is by no means simple, it is relatively economical in that the signaling molecule can cross the plasma membrane and the signal receptor can directly go to the target (in this case genes in the nucleus). For hydrophilic signal molecules, the information from the signaling molecule must be transduced across the plasma membrane. Many G proteins are peripheral membrane proteins located inside the cell that are closely associated with transmembrane signal receptors. G proteins are activated when they bind GTP and are deactivated when they hydrolyze the bound GTP to GDP (i.e, G proteins are GTPases ). G protein-coupled receptor signaling G-protein-activated enzymes catalyze the production of small nonprotein signaling molecules called second messengers that diffuse rapidly and spread the signal message throughout the cell. Common second messengers are Ca 2+ ions, cyclic GMP (cGMP), diacylglycerol (DAG), inositol triphosphate (IP 3 ), and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). HOW DO ENZYME-LINKED RECEPTORS WORK?...
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This note was uploaded on 02/13/2012 for the course BIO 172 taught by Professor Clark during the Winter '08 term at University of Michigan.

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lecture 19 W11 - Todays topics 1) Introduction to cell...

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