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lecture 29 W11 - Lecture 29 Animal Development Today's...

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Today’s topics 1) Fertilization 2) Morphogens (e.g., Bicoid) 3) Organizers (e.g., Spemann’s Organizer) 4) Hox genes and segment identity Lecture 29 (3/25/11) - Animal Development
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Molecules; Chemical bonds; Free energy Lipids Amino acids nucleotides carbohydrates membranes proteins Membrane transport Membrane proteins cytoskeleton enzymes DNA RNA Metabolism Sugar transport Electrolyte transport Kidney Nerve cells Muscle & movement Transporters and pumps Receptors Cell-cell communication Chemical signaling development Replication transcription translation Glycolysis Fermentation Krebs cycle Photo- Synthesis & Calvin cycle Cell cycle Regulation of transcription biotechnology genomics Microbes & viruses Biology 172 flowchart (lecture 29) cancer epigenetics
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Life Cycles in Multicellular Organisms: Homo sapiens Definition: Fertilization) is the fusion of two gametes to form the Diploid Zygote Cytoplasmic determinants (maternal) Zygotic program takes over Hox genes Establishing identity
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Acrosome Head Flagellu m Nucleus Centriole Plasma membran e Vacuole (not present in all sperm) Mitochondria Neck Midpiece Tail Sperm - a highly specialized haploid cell
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Structures in the animal egg include cortical granules (small vesicles docked on the plasma membrane), the vitelline envelope (a fibrous, matlike sheet of glycoproteins that surrounds the egg), and a jelly layer (a large, gelatinous mass that also encloses the egg. Animal eggs are also highly specialized, most noticably, their large size!!!
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Sea urchins are a model system for studying fertilization because they produce an enormous number of gametes and undergo external fertilization.
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Species Recognition in Sea Urchins Fertilizin is a compound on the surface of sea urchin egg cells that binds to bindin , a protein on the head of sea urchin sperm. Binding occurs in a species-specific manner. Fertilizin from the eggs of one species binds to sperm of its own species but does not bind to sperm of different species.
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Figure 22-6b-setup
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Figure 22-6c-results
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A WAVE OF Ca 2+ SPREADS FROM THE SITE OF SPERM ENTRY.
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