Handout 20+21+22

Handout 20+21+22 - Handout 20 1. What was the significance...

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Handout 20 1. What was the significance of the Chamorro-Bryan Treaty? The Bryan-Chamorro Treaty was signed on August 5, 1914 under the approval of the Taft administration. The Treaty was named after the principal negotiators:William Jennings Bryan, U. S. Secretary of State; and then General Emiliano Chamorro, representing the Nicaraguan government. By the terms of the Treaty, the United States acquired the rights to any canal built in Nicaragua in perpetuity, a renewable ninety-nine year option to establish a naval base in the Gulf of Fonseca, and a renewable ninety-nine year lease to the Great and Little Corn Islands in the Caribbean. For these concessions, Nicaragua received three million dollars. At various times since the Panama Canal opened in 1914, the Nicaragua route has been reconsidered. Its construction would shorten the water distance between New York and San Francisco by nearly 800 kilometers (500 miles). The Bryan-Chamorro Treaty kept Nicaragua from competing with the Panama Canal. 2. Who was Augusto Sandino and what is the significane of his role in Nicaraguan history? Augusto Nicolás Calderón Sandino (May 18, 1895 – February 21, 1934) was a Nicaraguan revolutionary and leader of a rebellion against the U.S. military presence in Nicaragua between 1927 and 1933. He was labeled as a bandit by the U.S. government, and his exploits made him a hero throughout much of Latin America, where he became a symbol of resistance to U.S. domination. Drawing the United States Marines into an undeclared guerrilla war, his guerrilla organization suffered many defeats, but he successfully evaded capture. As his successes grew, he transformed his own name to Augusto César Sandino and renamed his band of followers "The Army in Defense of the National Sovereignty of Nicaragua". Efforts by the Marines to kill or capture Sandino over the summer proved to be a failure, due to the Sandinistas' superior knowledge of the local terrain, superior intelligence capabilities, and skill at camouflaging their movements. Sandino became a hero to many leftists in Nicaragua and much of Latin America as a Robin Hood figure who opposed domination from wealthy elites and foreigners, such as the United States. His dislike of the American presence was tempered by the love he said he felt towards Americans in the same situation as himself. His picture and silhouette complete with the oversized cowboy hat became recognized symbols of the Sandinista National Liberation Front. Later idolized by Fidel Castro and Hugo Chavez. 3. What role did the U.S play in Nicaragua during these years? The United States kept a contingent force in Nicaragua almost continually from 1912 until 1933. Although reduced to 100 in 1913, the contingent served as a reminder of the willingness of the United States to use force and its desire to keep conservative governments in power. Under United States supervision, national elections were held in 1913, but the liberals refused to participate in the electoral process, and Adolfo Díaz was
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Handout 20+21+22 - Handout 20 1. What was the significance...

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