Most successful. Took Muslims by surprise. The rest considered pretty
much failures. Germ warfare, plague, leprosy.
-Development on Knight orders, Templar, Teutonic, Hosplitars
Third Crusade -
Knights of first crusade became robber barons in near east, Battle of
Hattin 1187 – Saladin Muslim victory over Christian Knights
-Saladin (quickly takes back holy lands, Acre, Jerusalem
Crusades led by Frederick Barbarossa (HRE), Richard I (England), Philip Augustus
Barbarossa dies drowning while crossing a river, Many Germans go home,
Philip Augustus a pussy, not great leader, Richard I charismatic, charming still
not enough to defeat the great Saladin.
Saladin dies eventually, Middle East in Complete disarray, spurs new but still
Crusades had little long term affect on middle east.
Increased contact with Islam
Islam comes to Europe
Allowed for growth of monarchies stabilization of Europe
Italy gains major profit
Increased ideas of intolerance and frequency of violence in response to intolerance
- Dualists, Body (Evil) vs. Spirit (Good, Holy)
Considered heretics and hunted down by Christian church. (burnt at the stake)
William The Conqueror
- French Born, Successor to Duke of Normandy, Claimed
inheritance to lands of Great Britain.
Eventually became king of England as well as Duke of Normandy
- Survey commissioned by William the conqueror of all of England,
Possessions, livestock, gave insight into the lives of the medieval English
– King of England, after William, develops bureaucracy, office of Echequer,
treasury, expansion of the use of common law,
Thomas A Becket-
Henry II’s intellectual equal, friend, Archbishop of Canterbury,
Henry accidentally told knights to murder Thomas,