GrammarReviewSheetForUnit2

GrammarReviewSheetForUnit2 - Grammar Review Sheet for Unit...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–8. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Background image of page 2
Background image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Background image of page 4
Background image of page 5

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Background image of page 6
Background image of page 7

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Background image of page 8
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: Grammar Review Sheet for Unit 2 2.1 Grammatical gender. Nouns in Russian are either masculine, feminine, or neuter. How can you tell what gender goes with a given noun? If the noun ends in a consonant (M, Ji, p, 171, etc.), then it is masculine. If the noun ends in a or 51, then it is feminine. Twoexceptions: ‘ nouns that refer to men (n ana, Bang, Mama} are masculine and will be modified by masculine adjectives (thus, xopommfil Hana) _ nouns that end in in M51 (HMSI) are neuter ‘ If the nounends in o e or (3', then it is neuter. As noted above, nouns that end in M51 are also neuter. You know one such noun: HMH. Nouns that end in a soft sign (1)) are either masculine or feminine. There is no way to tell which they are just from looking at the word. You simply need to memorize it word by word. In our textbook, you can assume these words are masculine unless the. book writes Zfemj next to them in the vocabulary list. 0&5 2.2' Nominative Plural of Nouns. You know how to say TBJIBBI/IBOP, but what if you have more than one television? How do you make a noun plural? For masculine and feminine nouns, the nominative plural ending is either bI (hard) or 1/1 (soft 1. For neuter nouns, the plural ending is either a shard! or $1 gsoft 1. How do you know which one to use? There are five steps to this process: v 1. Identify the gender of the noun. Is it masculine, feminine, or neuter? 2. Is it hard or soft? In order to determine whether a masculine noun is hard or soft, check its ending. Most masculine nouns have hard endings. If the noun ends in a soft sign (1:) or in the letter 12, though, then it is soft. In order to determine whether a feminine noun is hard or soft, check its ending. If its ending is a, it is hard. If its ending is a, it is soft. In order to determine whether a neuter noun is hard or soft, check its ending. If its ending is o, it is hard. If its ending is e or ('3', then it is soft. 3. Assign the ending you think fits. Let's go back to TeneBmop. It is masculine, and it is hard. If a noun is hard, you want to keep it that way when you are adding or changing endings. If a noun is soft, you want to keep it that way when you are adding or changing endings. Your goal is to : A513” mitrrxmm's be consistent. Logically speaking, then, the plural ending of “renew/130p - should be Q. But there is one more thing you need to check before you can assign that ending! And that is... 4. The 7-letter spelling rule. After the letters K, 1", x, X, H, 111, m, you may not write the letter 13; l !! Instead you must write Q. So before you assign the ending b1, you've always got to check and make sure you‘re allowed to put that ending on the word in question. _ In this case, you do not have a problem. You assign the ending M to TBJIBB‘I/IBOP, and you are all set. The plural of TeneBn3op is.TeneBn30pbi. 5. Check for exceptions! (See below.) Let's try this procedure with a few more nouns. Noun: KI-II/II‘a. Step 1: the noun is feminine. Step 2: the noun has a hard ending. Step 3: the ending for the plural ought to be 131, BUT... Step 4: the 7—letter spelling rule won't let you write an [)1 after a r! You're stuck. You have to settle for the soft ending instead. Chop off your first endingé—the a——and add your new, plural ending. Theplural of KHI/If'a. will be KHI/IF‘I/I. Noun: ,ZlOKyMeI-IT. Step 1: the noun is masculine. Step 2: the noun has a hard ending. Step 3: the ending for the plural ought to be M, but you need to check the spelling rule before assigning that ending... Step 4: the spelling rule says it's okay, so the plural will be ,ZlOKyMeHTbI. Noun: unaTbe. ‘ ( Step 1: the noun is neuter. Step 2: the noun has a soft ending. Step 3: the ending ought to be $1, the neuter soft ending. There is no bI involved, so you don't have to worry about the 7-letter spelling rule. Chop off your firstending-—the e-.—and add your new, plural ending. The plural of nuaTbe will be HJ‘IaTbH. ' A few last things to keep in mind when dealing with the nominative plural: 1. Some nouns have irregular endings. One type of irregular ending is the small group of masculine nouns that take the'ending a (stressed) in the plural. You know three of these: The plural ofnacnopT is nacnopra. The plural of eBHTep is CBI/ITepa. The plural of AOM is ,ZIOMa. 2. Words of foreign origin that end in O, H or 37 never change! So the plural of paw/Io, for example, is paw/Io. _ 3. Some nouns drop a "filler vowel" (always 0 or e) when they get a new ending. You have seen two such nouns: they are ameanaHeu and I nonapox. So the plural of amepI/IKaHeu is amepMKaHubI, and the plural of nonapox is HOflapKI/I (note the way the spelling rule kicked in on that one). There is no way for you to anticipatewhich nouns have filler vowels, but your book will indicate these vowels by putting them in parentheses in the vocabulary list. Also, we will point these out to you. 2.3 The Personal Pronounsz’on, 011a, 0H0, OHM. In English, we often substitute pronouns for nouns. Here is an example: instead of saying "John is at home," we say, "fie is at home." Lie is a pronoun substituting for log. ’ In Russian, we substitute pronouns not only for people, but also for things. Masculine nouns get» replaced by the masculine pronoun 0H, feminine nouns get replaced by the feminine pronoun OHa, neuter nouns get replaced by the neuter pronoun 0H0, and plural nouns of any gender get replaced by the plural pronoun 9314. So if you ask the question, "Fae quOflaI-I?" (Where is the suitcase?), you could answer saying "BOT on" (There it is). OH is a pronoun substituting for HeMOAaH. If you ask "line [mi/Ira," you might answer by saying "BOT mm"; mm is a pronoun substituting for KHI/IFa. It works the same way for neuter and plural nouns, using 0H0 and OHI/I respectively to substitute for the given noun. 2.4 Whose? Herd? and the Possessive Pronouns M0171, T130171, ero, eé, Ham, 13am, Hx. ' If you want to ask to whom something belongs, there is a specific formula in Russian for doing so. Here is how it works: in position 1: a form of the question word 11617] (whose) in position 2: the word 3T0. This word will never change in this phrase!!! in position 3: the noun in question. Note that the form of get/“I that you use in position one depends directly on the gender/number of the noun in position three! In other words, if you have a masculine singular noun in position three, you will use the masculine singular form of the word: gen. If you have a feminine singular noun in position three, you will use the word LIbSI in position one. If you have a neuter singular noun in position three, you will use the word [the in position one. And if you have a plural noun of ANY gender in position three, you will use the word UbI/I in position one.‘ Examples: I16171 3T0 quonaH? 7‘in 3T0 Knura? Ilbé 3T0 naJIbTo? . qu/I 3T0 ,ZIOKyMeI-ITbI? Note that the first and third elements always match, and that the middle element never” Changes! Now, what if you want to answer that question, if you want to say that the suitcase, or the book, or the coat, or the documents are yours, or hers, or his, or ours? Here is how you say that. For the words "my," "your" (singular/familiar), "our," and "your" (plural, formal), there are four possible forms. You have seen these possibilities before: masculine, feminine, neuter, or plural (there is only one plural form forthese words, regardless of gender!). Here is what the forms look like, in that order: MOI?! quOflal-I, M091 KHI/Ira, MOé HaJ'IbTO, MOI/I ,ZIOKyMGHTbI TBOIjl HGMOJIaH, TBOSI KHI/IFa, TBOé HELJIbTO, TBOI/I ,ZIOKyMBHTbI Hall] QBMOflaH, Hama KHI/Il‘a, name naano, HaHII/I ,ZIOKyMeHTbI BaIII quOZIaI-I, 33.1113. KHI/IFa, B31116 HaJIbTO, Baum ,ZlOKyMeHTbI. The nicething is that there is only one form apiece for "his," "her," and "their." Those forms look like this, no matter what follows them: ero quozlaH, ero KHI/IFa, ero naano, ero ,ZlOKyMeI-ITbI e'é quozxaH, eé KHI/Ira, eé naJIbTo, eé ,ZIOKyMeI—ITbI I/IX quonaH, 14x KHI/Il‘a, I/[X naano, 14x ,ZlOKyMeHTbI. Note that these forms never change! Here is a dialogue that uses what you have j ‘Ibé 3T0 naJIbTo? 3T0 Moe' nanbro. 2.5 Adjectives (N ominative Case) ust learned: As you might expect by now, adjectives in Russian come in four forms: masculine, feminine, neuter, and plural. There is a hard variant and a soft variant for each of these four forms. Most 0 have hard endings. There is a small group 0 f the adjectives you will learn f adjectives in Russian that have soft endings. Right now you don't know any of them, so the only time you will use soft endings is When spelling rules intervene... L fl M9 But first, the adjective endings: Masculine: hard hm, soft 1/112; or, if stressed, Femininerhard as, soft 5191 Neuter: hard oe, soft ee Plural: hard we, soft me. I You will generally be given adjectives in V0 fi/i / [M w cabulary lists in the masculine form. Each adjective has a stem, to which are added the endings listed above. All adjective endings consist of two letters. So if you see Kpacunbm listed, what you actually have in front of you is the masculine form of the adjective, which consists of the stem Kpaan and the masculine adjective ending 131171. If you want to make the adjective feminine, instead of the ending blfi you will use the ending as :(Kpa M3351). For neuter you will use the neuter ending (KpacunoeJ, and for plura , the plural ending .[KpaCI/IBbIe]. How do you know which ending you are su posed to use? It depends on the noun that goes with the adjective. If you have a masculine noun, it needs to be modified by (described by) a masculine a djective. If you have a feminine noun, it needs to be modified by a feminine adjective. And so forth. Examples of adjectives + nouns: xopommfi quonaH 6onbma91 KHI/If‘a maneHbKoe naJIbTo nnoxne ,ZlOKyMeI-ITbI. w: :« wwva-ymwxmmwmrm ,, l . . What role do spelling rules play in‘all this? It depends on which form of the adjective you are talking about. Remember that the 7-letter rule forbids you to write an bl after the letters erxqmm. Note that the masculine and the plural adjective endings both have the letter bI in them. So before you affix those endings to an adjective stem, you will need to make sure you are allowed to do so. ' If you are not, then you must use the soft ending instead. Example: XOpOIlII/II7I. The stem is xopom; endings get added to it. It is a hard adjective ' ’ . r - - , : '===:=s=;ai.;,;‘..a , so you assume the ending will be 131131. BUT YOU CAN'T DO I BECAUSE OF THE SPELLING RULE! So you have to settlefor the soft ending, 1/112, even though this is technically a hard adjective. The same thing Will happen in the plural form: you will end up with xopomI/Ie. But the feminine form will be perfectly regular: xopomasi. How about the neuter form? - -W ....;__-. vvvv --§.§.!.‘—"’ ,,,, w..- "vv The neuter form is where you run into one more problem: namely, your second spelling rule, the 5-letter spelling rule. This rule states, confusingly- enough, that you must not write an unstressed o (unstressed means that the accent, or emphasis, in the word does not fall on that letter) after the letters ' Hamlin 1.1;. Note that all of these except it are the same as a group of the ones in the first spelling rule. How does this rule affect us? Let's look at the neuter form of the word xopommfil. You know that it is a hard adjective, you figure that the neuter ending should be oe. But you need to check your new spelling rule, and you find that you cannot use the hard ' ending after all-~you must not write an unstressed 0 after the letter in. So you revert to the soft ending, which is ee. And your neuter form ends up being xopomee. " Here is a regular adjective, for comparison‘s sake: Kp ant/11351131 Kpacueaz Kpacusoe KpaCMBbIe. A _ This is a hard adjective with no spelling rules in the way and all endings regular. To summarize, then: Adjectives consist of a stem and endings. Assume that the hard endings are what you need, but be sure to check your spelling rules. The first, 7-letter rule will affect the masculine and plural forms of the adjective. The second, 5-letter rule .will affect the neuter form of the adjective. Revert to the soft endings if spelling rules prevent you from using the hard ones. You should not run into any trouble with the feminine form of the adjective. 2.6 What-tire and which/what kind of-Kaxofi. ,The Russian word two means "wha ." The phraseHTo 3T0? means "What is this?" This phrase never changes. You answer this question by saying, "3T0 ueMonaH," or "3T0 KHI/Ir‘a," ("It's a suitcase," "It's a book"), Whatever the thing in question may be. 3T0 will never change in this phrase g the guestion or the answer 2! Note that this is the second phrase you have encountered that uses an unchanging word 3T0! Your first such expression used Her/“I, as in [lei/“I aTo quogaH? 3T0 MOI/“I quonaH. ' The Russian word Kakofii means which or what kind of. It can function the ' way qen does, in a phrase with an unchanging 3T0. It has four forms, the same four that you are used to: masCuline (KaKofi), feminine (Kakag), neuter (KaKoe), and plural (KaKI/Ie). Note that the endings on these words are the adjective endings that you already know! ‘ Here are some examples of KaKofi used in a sentence, along with possible responses. KaKoFi 3T0 quOnaH? 3T0 50JIbIHOI71 LIGMOZlaI-I! KaKan 3T0 Kai/Ira? 3T0 xopomasi KHI/IFa! KaKoe 3T0 naJIbTo? 3T0 MOé naano! Kala/1e 3T0 ,ZIOKyMeHTbI? 3T0 ero ,zioxyMeHTbi! You can also use KaKofi along with another adjective to mean "how," as in the exclamation "how big"——I<a1<0151 6onbmofi! You saw this usage in one of your dialogues. 2.7 3T0 vs. 3TOT/3Ta/3T0/3TH. You now know three types of phrases that use the unchanging word 3T0. They are v l. tIeifii 3T0 quonaH? 3T0 ero ueMonaH. 2. KaKoFI 3T0 T-IGMOZlal-I? TO fionbmofi quonaH. ,, ,,-_mei.w_w , 3. TITO 3T0? 3T0 KHI/Ira.‘ Interestingly enough, this unchanging word 3T0 looks exactly like the neuter form of an irregular adjective that means "this" or "these." The other forms are as follows: masculine is aror, feminine is era, and plural is 3TH. These forms get used to modify nouns: . Sror quonaH fionbmofi. = This suitcase is big. Contrast this sentence with 3T0 60.21131110171 quoziaH. = This is/It is a big suitcase. 3Ta KHI/If‘a xopoman. = This book is good. Contrast this sentence with 3T0 xopomas KHMra. = This is/It is a good book. 3T0 nanbro mioxoe. = This coat is bad.\ Contrast this sentence with Bro ruioxoe naano. = This is/it is a bad coat. ' 3TH ,ZIOKyMeHTbI MaJ'IGHbKI/Ie. = These documents are small. Contrast this sentence with 3T0 MaJ'IGHbKI/Ie noxyMeHTbI. = These are small documents. 2.8 Possession. Y MeHfl ech, y Tefisi ech, y Bac ecrb. To eXpress posseSsion or ownership, use the phrases y MeHsi eCTb, y Te65i ecrb, y Bac ecrb.. "I'have" is expressed by y MBHSI €CTb, "you have" is expressed by y Te6$i eoTb (singular, informal) or y Bac-ecrb (plural, formal). Then add a noun. ' Examples: 37 Mel-{$1 ecrb KHI/IFI/I, = I have books. 37 T6551 ecrb HOflapOK? = Do you have the present? 37 Bac ecrb ueMozIaH. = You have the suitcase. \ Note that to turn the sentence into a question, all you have to do is add a question mark (or, if you are speaking, change your intonation)! If you are asked the question 37 T665} 60% KHI/IFa?, and you do not have a book, then you answer by saying Her, y Mel-[$1 Her. If you do have a book, you'd say ,ZIa, y M61191 ecrb KHMra. ...
View Full Document

Page1 / 8

GrammarReviewSheetForUnit2 - Grammar Review Sheet for Unit...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 8. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online