Successful College Composition PDF.pdf - 6 Successful...

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Unformatted text preview: 6 Successful College Composition (2016) This text is a transformation of Writing for Success, a text adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution as requested by the work’s original creator or licensee. Kathryn Crowther, Lauren Curtright, Nancy Gilbert, Barbara Hall, Tracienne Ravita, and Kirk Swenson adapted this text under a grant from Affordable Learning Georgia to Georgia Perimeter College (GPC) in 2015. Section 1.3 was authored by Rebecca Weaver. This text is a revision of a prior adaptation of Writing for Success led by Rosemary Cox in GPC’s Department of English, titled Successful College Writing for GPC Students (2014, 2015). Chapter 1: Introduction to Writing ........................................................................................... 6 1.1 Becoming a Successful Writer ....................................................................................... 6 Writing to Think and Communicate .................................................................................. 6 Overcoming Writer’s Block ............................................................................................... 6 Selecting an Appropriate Voice ........................................................................................ 7 Choosing the Proper Pronoun Focus............................................................................... 8 1.2 Purpose, Audience, Tone, and Content ......................................................................... 9 Identifying Common Academic Purposes ..................................................................... 10 Identifying the Audience ................................................................................................. 12 Selecting an Appropriate Tone ....................................................................................... 15 Choosing Appropriate, Interesting Content ................................................................... 16 1.3 Using Sources ............................................................................................................... 17 Guidelines for Source Use .............................................................................................. 19 Explicating Sources ........................................................................................................ 19 1.4 Writing Thesis Statements............................................................................................ 20 Working Thesis Statements ............................................................................................ 20 Thesis Statement Revision ............................................................................................. 21 1.5 Methods of Organizing Your Writing............................................................................ 24 Chronological Order ........................................................................................................ 24 Order of Importance ........................................................................................................ 25 Spatial Order .................................................................................................................... 25 1.6 Writing Paragraphs ....................................................................................................... 27 Paragraph Structure Graphic Organizer ........................................................................ 28 Creating Focused Paragraphs with Topic Sentences ................................................... 29 Location of Topic Sentences .......................................................................................... 30 Developing Paragraphs ................................................................................................... 33 Paragraph Length ............................................................................................................ 38 Improving Paragraph Coherence.................................................................................... 38 Chapter 2: The Writing Process ............................................................................................. 44 2.1 Prewriting....................................................................................................................... 44 Prewriting Techniques: Brainstorming .......................................................................... 44 Return to Table of Contents 2 2.2 Outlining ........................................................................................................................ 50 Purpose of an Outline...................................................................................................... 50 Types of Outlines............................................................................................................. 51 Creating an Outline .......................................................................................................... 53 2.3 Drafting .......................................................................................................................... 54 Goals and Strategies for Drafting ................................................................................... 55 Making the Writing Process Work for You ..................................................................... 55 Discovering the Basic Elements of a First Draft ............................................................ 56 The Bowtie Method .......................................................................................................... 57 Starting Your First Draft .................................................................................................. 57 Continuing the First Draft................................................................................................ 60 Writing a Title ................................................................................................................... 62 Drafting Body Paragraphs............................................................................................... 63 Drafting Introductory and Concluding Paragraphs ....................................................... 68 2.4 Revising and Editing ..................................................................................................... 72 Understanding the Purpose of Revising and Editing .................................................... 72 Completing a Peer Review .............................................................................................. 72 Using Feedback ............................................................................................................... 74 Creating Unity and Coherence........................................................................................ 74 Being Clear and Concise ................................................................................................. 77 Editing Your Draft ............................................................................................................ 80 Sample Student Paper with Outline ................................................................................ 83 Chapter 3: Rhetorical Modes of Writing ................................................................................ 88 3.1 Narration ........................................................................................................................ 89 The Structure of a Narrative Essay ................................................................................. 89 Writing a Narrative Essay ................................................................................................ 91 3.2 Description .................................................................................................................... 94 The Purpose of Description in Writing ........................................................................... 94 The Structure of a Description Essay............................................................................. 95 Writing a Description Essay ............................................................................................ 95 3.3 Classification ................................................................................................................. 98 The Purpose of Classification in Writing ....................................................................... 98 The Structure of a Classification Essay ......................................................................... 99 Writing a Classification Essay ........................................................................................ 99 3.4 Process Essay ............................................................................................................. 100 The Purpose of the Process Essay .............................................................................. 100 The Structure of a Process Essay ................................................................................ 100 Writing a Process Essay ............................................................................................... 101 3.5 Definition...................................................................................................................... 105 The Purpose of Definition in Writing ............................................................................ 105 The Structure of a Definition Essay .............................................................................. 106 Writing a Definition Essay ............................................................................................. 107 3.6 Comparison and Contrast........................................................................................... 111 The Purpose of Comparison and Contrast in Writing ................................................. 111 Return to Table of Contents 3 The Structure of a Comparison-and-Contrast Essay .................................................. 111 Writing a Comparison-and-Contrast Essay ................................................................. 114 3.7 Cause and Effect ......................................................................................................... 119 The Purpose of Cause and Effect in Writing ................................................................ 119 The Structure of a Cause-and-Effect Essay ................................................................. 120 Writing a Cause-and-Effect Essay ................................................................................ 121 3.8 Persuasion ................................................................................................................... 122 The Purpose of Persuasive Writing .............................................................................. 122 The Structure of a Persuasive Essay ........................................................................... 122 Creating an Introduction and Thesis ............................................................................ 123 Bias in Writing................................................................................................................ 124 The Use of “I” in Writing................................................................................................ 124 Facts and Opinions ....................................................................................................... 125 Using Visual Elements to Strengthen Arguments ....................................................... 126 Writing a Persuasive Essay .......................................................................................... 126 Chapter 4: Writing a Research Paper .................................................................................. 134 4.1 The Purpose of Research Writing .............................................................................. 134 Process Overview .......................................................................................................... 135 4.2 Choosing Your Topic .................................................................................................. 136 Identifying Potential Topics .......................................................................................... 136 Focusing on a Topic ...................................................................................................... 137 Determining Paths of Inquiry ........................................................................................ 139 4.3 Managing Your Research............................................................................................ 141 Scheduling Research and Writing ................................................................................ 141 Staying Organized ......................................................................................................... 142 Anticipating Challenges ................................................................................................ 143 4.4 Gathering Your Sources ............................................................................................. 144 Identifying Primary and Secondary Sources ............................................................... 145 Reading Popular and Scholarly Periodicals ................................................................ 146 Using Sources from the Open Web .............................................................................. 147 Types and Formats of Library Sources ........................................................................ 148 Using Databases ............................................................................................................ 150 Entering Search Terms.................................................................................................. 157 Consulting a Reference Librarian ................................................................................. 158 4.5 Evaluating and Processing Your Sources ................................................................. 159 Determining Whether a Source Is Relevant ................................................................. 159 Determining Whether a Source Is Reliable .................................................................. 160 Keeping Track of Sources ............................................................................................. 162 Taking Notes Efficiently ................................................................................................ 164 4.6 Applying Your Research ............................................................................................. 166 Selecting Useful Details ................................................................................................ 166 Finding Connections between Sources ....................................................................... 168 Reevaluating Your Working Thesis .............................................................................. 168 Synthesizing Source Material ....................................................................................... 169 Return to Table of Contents 4 Planning How to Organize Your Paper ......................................................................... 170 4.7 Writing Your Draft........................................................................................................ 172 The Structure of a Research Paper .............................................................................. 172 Writing Your Introduction.............................................................................................. 172 Writing Your Conclusion ............................................................................................... 173 Using Primary and Secondary Research ..................................................................... 174 Incorporating Source Material into Your Body Paragraphs ........................................ 175 4.8 Documenting Your Source Material ........................................................................... 179 Citing Sources in Your Paper........................................................................................ 180 Creating a List of References ....................................................................................... 181 Avoiding Plagiarism ...................................................................................................... 181 4.9 Revising Your Draft ..................................................................................................... 184 Revising Your Paper’s Organization and Cohesion .................................................... 184 Revising to Improve Style and Tone............................................................................. 188 Editing Your Paper ........................................................................................................ 189 Checklist for Revision ................................................................................................... 192 Chapter 5: Grammar ............................................................................................................. 195 5.1 Syntax .......................................................................................................................... 195 Components of a Sentence ........................................................................................... 195 Sentence Patterns ......................................................................................................... 197 Compound Sentences: Joining Clauses with Coordination ....................................... 198 Complex Sentences: Joining Clauses with Subordination ......................................... 201 Common Errors: Fragments and Run-ons ................................................................... 205 Common Errors: Misplaced and Dangling Modifiers .................................................. 208 Parallelism...................................................................................................................... 211 Appositives .................................................................................................................... 214 5.2 Verbs ............................................................................................................................ 214 Verb Forms..................................................................................................................... 214 Simple Verb Tenses ....................................................................................................... 216 Perfect Verb Tenses ...................................................................................................... 217 Progressive Verb Tenses .............................................................................................. 218 Perfect Progressive Verb Tenses ................................................................................. 220 Passive Verb Forms....................................................................................................... 221 Gerunds and Infinitives ................................................................................................. 222 Modal Auxiliaries ........................................................................................................... 225 Phrasal Verbs................................................................................................................. 229 Subject-Verb Agreement ............................................................................................... 230 5.3 Nouns and Article Use ................................................................................................ 235 Count and Non-...
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