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ITALIAN STUDY GUIDE- AMY *RENAISSANCE: a cultural movement that began in the late middle ages in Italy and later spread to the rest of Europe. Flowering of literature and science. Resurgence of learning based on classical sources. Development of individuality. Space and Time- Petrarch Spaces Rural Spaces: -Italian geography was varied so there was no typical landscape -Natural setting combined with local traditions and economic and social conditions to set the uses and the look and feel or rural space -North Italy= wealthy, crowded -South Italy= poorer, sparsely populated -Italians didn’t view mountains with romantic view we have today- instead saw it as rough country with dangers but also useful. On the other hand they loved the hills (felt they were softened by human touch) -Italian landscape was emptier, wilder and more wooded than today=> in the sixteenth century rising population, lax administration, and overzealous cutting led to deforestation. Housing: -no single village architecture- villages tightly packed Place Names: -Difference between the Italian landscape and that of the English- speaking New World- density of name it bore. Italians named fields, ditches, springs etc. Urban Space: -Cities had distinct boundaries. -Renaissance imposed new urban planning with passion for rational geometry. Reason, not tradition or utility, would lay out town. - Streets= messy -belvederes- means “good view”- symbol of the Renaissance. Peaceable rooftop pavilion on palaces -piazza- crucial feature of urban life. Place for ceremony, games, socializing, commerce - 3 MAJOR ITALIAN SPACES: one for market, ne for the major church, and one for the seat of government Divisions of the Town: -Italians loyal to cities. also devoted to neighborhood. Most cities had quarters responsible for defending an area. Quarters also could serve as electoral districts -had insignia, places of march in processions, patron saints, well defined points of entry -in addition to political divisions there were also economic divisions. Richer and poorer parts. -Social segregation: nationalities clustered around fave taverns or churches Sacred Spaces:
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-cities had patron saint who usually resided in the cathedral Evolution of city Structure: -Spatial features of Italian cities owed a great deal to the ancient world. Venice is an exception -many cities had a citadel- cittadella means “little city.” Housed the troops of a lord Gender and Space: -domestic space-female -public places- male -Well and collective wash tubs – frequented by women too -higher woman’s status. The less she moved about Houses and Palaces as Spaces: -spatial trait of grand and humble houses=courtyard and logia (arcaded porch or balcony) -ground floor used less for living than doing work and storage -piano nobile= noble floor. The place where a wealthy resident received honored guests, entertained, and lived.
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