exss141 final study guide

exss141 final study guide - EXSS 141 Final Exam Study Guide...

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EXSS 141 Final Exam Study Guide Cardiovascular Disease CVD Risk Factors o Heredity Inherit a predisposition ie. Genetic high cholesterol o Sex females o Race African Americans- high blood pressure is often more difficult to treat o Age-- >65 o Cigarettes (tobacco) 2x risk of heart attack 4x risk of sudden death o Hypertension (high blood pressure) o Diabetes Insulin effects the way you metabolize everything o Diet/blood fats Cholesterol- normal <200 LDL bad <130 HDL good >40 o Lack of exercise o Stress Type A personality - Non-modifiable - Modifiable: how to change these factors - Who is most at risk? Types of strokes What kind of damage (to end organs, etc) can be done by CVD? Types of CVD o Atherosclerosis (hardening of arteries) Plaque formation in response to damage to endothelium - Composed of muscle cells, white blood cells, cholesterol, calcium Damage caused by many things: smoking, HTN, lipids, etc. o Hypertension “silent killer”- no observable signs of symptoms Systole/diastole - Systole-pressure against artery when heat contracts - Diastole- pressure that remains on arterial wall when the heart is relaxed and filling up HBP damages “end organs”- heart, brain, eyes, kidneys o Myocardial infarction Heart attack
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EXSS 141 Final Exam Study Guide - Symptoms in men: crushing chest pressure, pain L shoulder & arm, shortness of breath, seating fatigue, anxiety - Symptoms in women: extreme fatigue that comes on suddenly, sudden shortness of breath, pain in jaw bone, pain between shoulder blades o Angina Pectoris Caused by significant narrowing of coronary artery that causes crushing chest pain due to lack of oxygen to heart muscle when physical exertion levels are high Pain diminishes when person rests and heart rate and blood pressure decrease o Cerebrovascular accident Stroke Hemorrhagic - Aneurysm (weakness in BV that causes bulge) Ischemic - Embolus- small piece of plaque breaks off and blocks a blood vessel in brain Symptoms: - Sudden numbness or weakness - Sudden confusion, trouble speaking, understanding - Sudden trouble seeing - Sudden trouble walking, loss of balance - Sudden severe headache o Congestive heart failure Pump failure - Many causes: o HTN, MI, atherosclerosis Pitting edema - Fluid in the tissues of the lower extremities leak into lung’s airspaces due weak “pump” o Congenital heart disease Ventricular septal defect (most common) o Rheumatic heart disease Caused by repeated and untreated infections Leading cause of heart valve problems Alcohol, Tobacco, and Drugs Addiction: physical and psychological dependence o Process: Reinforcement: physical and psychological with regards to pleasure or reduction of negative ones Compulsion: time, energy, and money are spent to pursue the behavior, normal behavior has already degenerated Loss of control: addicted people lost the ability to control their behavior and results in addiction to more than one drug or behavior
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exss141 final study guide - EXSS 141 Final Exam Study Guide...

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