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plcy 220 study guide

plcy 220 study guide - PLCY 220 Final Exam Study Guide...

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PLCY 220 Final Exam Study Guide Concepts Politics: the authoritative allocation of values o Values are intrinsically valuable, fundamental things that people care about deeply; they come from family, tradition, religion, culture, etc o Authority stems primarily from government institutions, such as the executive, legislature, and judiciary o Allocation takes the form of public policy solutions Public Policy: the actions of government and the intentions that determine them o As an organized discipline, public policy is relatively young- began in mid 20 th century o Lacks coherent, well developed theoretical and methodological paradigm o We use policy studies to improve our understanding, provide policy advice/recommendations, and evaluate policy effects Market Model: individuals act only to maximize their own self-interest in a market, a social system in which individuals pursue their own welfare by exchanging things with others whenever trades are mutually beneficial o ex. Insurance is another financial product that firms sell in order to make a profit, and buyers buy in order to protect themselves against economic losses o features of the model: cooperation- deviation from the well-functioning market (price-fixing, insider trading) information- “perfect”; accurate, complete and available to all at no cost Polis Model: an entity small enough to have very simple forms of organization yet large enough to embody the elements of politics o ex. Mutual aid is a good in itself that people create, collectively, in order to foster and protect a community o features of the model: cooperation- linked with competition; necessary ingredient of power information- interpretive, incomplete and strategically withheld Advertising: one way individual preferences are shaped from inside the market o activity that promotes re-election; getting your name out Credit Claiming: activity that promotes re-election; claim you had credible role in making something good happen Position Taking: activity that promotes re-election; express view on an issue but can’t do anything about it, relate to constituents Blame Avoidance: politicians are motivated primarily by a desire to avoid blame for unpopular actions rather than to claim credit for popular ones
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PLCY 220 Final Exam Study Guide o Explains why policymakers often urge interest groups to work issues out themselves o Explains why policies are so difficult to change, even if they fail o Blame-avoiding strategies Agenda limitation- keep tough things off agenda (redefine the issue) Finding a scapegoat- Joining the bandwagon o Ex. Clinton health care reform in 1993- bill died due to timing: close to election time take credit vs. blame avoidance Institutions: organizations or systems in which individuals interact and achieve political & policy goals through explicit or implicit rules and operating procedures o They provide: Stability/predictability- people can conduct business without having to debate procedure
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