Exam 2 - Review Sheet

Exam 2 - Review Sheet - EXAM #2 PSYCHOLOGY 101 FALL, 2011...

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EXAM #2 – PSYCHOLOGY 101 – FALL, 2011 – REVIEW SHEET Hi, the exam will be 60 multiple-choice items. The exam will be on the chapters below (and material covered in class as it relates to that material). Chapter 4 – Sensation and Perception 1. What are the physical and psychological characteristics of sound and light (e.g., amplitude corresponds to loudness; wave length frequency corresponds to what types of colors?) and what is used to measure them (e.g., hertz)? Light – visible radiation; wavelengths measured in nanometers o Amplitude – light intensity/brightness High amt energy = high amplitude = bright light o Length – distance between peaks short wavelengths = purple; long wavelengths = red high frequency = shorter wavelength Sound o Vibration of air molecules, bones in ear, fluid in ear –where transduction (physical to neural energy) takes place, neural activity o Amplitude sound intensity/loudness – measured in decibals ) high energy = high amplitude = loud sound o Frequency – pitch (do re mi); measured in hertz Long wavelength = lower frequency = lower pitched sounds o Purity – timbre 2. Place versus Frequency (volley) theory of hearing; trichromatic versus opponent process theories of color vision; rods vs. cones. Theories of Vision Trichromatic vs. Opponent Process Theory (Color Vision) o Based on additive color mixing – add light reflected by a surface; mix colors (all = white) cones respond to red, green blue Activation can reproduce any color Subtractive mixing - mixing paints Young-Helmholtz trichromatic Theory 3 diff types of cones stimulated (action potential) to short wavelengths (blue), medium wavelengths (green), long wavelengths (red) Any color can be recreated by activation of these cones Problem: doesn’t do a good example of explaining afterimages Hering’s Opponent Process Theory After leaving rods/cones, Visual info is analyzed in terms of receptors that are organized as red/green, blue/yellow, black/white Take photoreceptor and is organized red/green if red part of neuron gets fatigued, opposite color emerges/activates Eg: American flag, British flag after images Ganglian cells to thalamus Which theory is right? Both are right but take parts at diff parts of the visual system Trichromatic theory – takes place at level of cones (3 types) Opponent process theory – occurs at level of ganglion cells (cells that leave retina), as well as in thalamus and visual cortex Optic nerve takes it to thalamus system Theories of Hearing
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1.) Frequency Theory Frequency (Hz) of sound is recreated by the rate of neural firing in the auditory system 100 waves/sec = 100 activations/sec Brain uses # of action potentials to understand pitch Problems Frequency of sound is reproduced by the amt of neural activity in basilar membrane There is an upper limit to the amt of neural activity Best at
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Exam 2 - Review Sheet - EXAM #2 PSYCHOLOGY 101 FALL, 2011...

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