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EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE CHAPTER 4 Sensation someone rubbing your arm -hearing voices – problem with sensation Bottom up processing – progression from individual to whole elements -hearing voices (problem with sensation) Perception – helps interpret what you experience -interpretation of rubbing arm is good or bad thing -delusions = problem with perception - Top down processing – try to make something into integrated whole -reading automatically words, fill in blanks -stereotyping – group people together based on characteristics Eg: Mr. W – the wind video Behavior of watcher changes after you realize the content of the situation Eg: M*R* -influences what you process later on Eg: Szhiophrenia – distortion of sensation and perception Transduction – process in which a system converts environmental or physical energy (light sound waves) and converst that into neural activity. Convert language of environment into language of nervous system. Physical to neural energy Diff between absolute and difference threshold absolute threshold is the smallest detectable level of a stimulus . [1] However, at this low level, subjects will sometimes detect the stimulus and at other times not. Therefore, an alternative definition of absolute threshold is the lowest intensity at which a stimulus can be detected 50% of the time difference threshold , the measure of how different two stimuli have to be in order for the subject to notice that they are not the same Absolute threshold – Subliminal - not clearly aware; below awareness Supralimina l – clearly aware; above threshold Sensitivity – how well you can discriminate stimulus from background Bias – response criteria that you adopt Influenced by rewards/costs of responding or not responding Minimum loudness, odor, etc., that needs to be present to detect 50% or more, hear better than chance How loud to you have to put sound until you can hear it and not by chance Diff people = diff absolute threshold, varies on diff days
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Signal detection theory (slide 11)- A way to look at the interplay between response bias and sensitivity Hits – sound, say sound Misses – sound, don’t respond False alarms – no sound, say sound correct rejection – no sound, say no sound Difference Threshold – how much does one thing have to change in order to say it’s different eg: mom says turn volume down, slowly turn back up till she realizes Coins in envelope – 60% confident Coins in envelope in sneakers – 10% confident Weber’s Law = JND = k x i – JND (just noticeable difference) = i (intensity of something) x k (constant fraction) -diff senses have diff fractions Sound = 10% -just noticeable difference is proportional to weigh VISION Light – visible radiation; wavelengths measured in nanometers o Amplitude – light intensity/brightness High amt energy = high amplitude = bright light o Length – distance between peaks
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