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Unformatted text preview: EXAM #3 – PSYCHOLOGY 101 – Fall, 2011 – REVIEW SHEET (there will be 57 questions total; exercises and film clips shown in class are fair game) Chapter 7 – Memory Basic memory processes (encoding, storage, and retrieval) Encoding – processing of information into the memory system • take information and put it into form or code to process in mind • attention is key! Is the filter for memories to conscious awareness • Two ways to enrich encoding 1. Elaborating – create your own memory 2. visual imagery- create visual image • Relevant theory – Dual processing theory - Paivio • If you use visual and semantic encoding even better chance of recalling information • Levels of processing Theory- (Craik) • 3 levels of processing that get progressively deeper • 1. Visual codes – (shallow) represent info as images • Look at what the word looks like (capitals, lowercase letters) • 2. Acoustic/phonetic codes – (intermediate) storing info as series of sounds • Word rhyming • 3. Semantic codes – (deep) coding info by thinking about actual meaning of term • Meaning of word; does the word fit the sentence • Best ability to enhance recall later on • Multitasking – Craik and Kester (2000) • Experimental group who had to divide attention didn’t do as well compared to control group Storage – store memory (sensory short term, long term) • Human memory ~ computer memory • Incoming information goes through 3 types of storage 1. Sensory memory (very brief) – preserves info in original form for very short time (1/4 sec); 1 st stage of incoming information • Eg: wave sparkler in the dark looks like a circle but actually is only one dot sensory memory creates circle • Sensory memory fills in the gaps • Iconic memory – subset of sensory memory • Momentary sensory memory in the form of images • Photographic image lasting no longer than one second • Echoic memory – subset of sensory memory • Echo of auditory stimuli • Momentary sensory memory of auditory stimulus even if attention is somewhere else • 1-2 seconds where you can repeat the name 2. Short term memory – limited in capacity • can maintain information that is not rehearsed for ~15 seconds • Used undergrads to test this out lolz • Rehearsal can keep items in STM • Maintenance rehearsal – more time you spend rehearsal, fewer rehearsals you’ll need the next day • More you rehearse, more you will remember • Elaborative rehearsal - conscious repetition of information • Do it to maintain it in consciousness • Use repetition to move info into LTM • Focus is on repetition • George Miller (1956) • Study on capacity • Magical number seven, plus or minus two” some limits on our capacity for processing information • Chunking – creating less units by chunking items together • Need to be meaningful chunks of information that cuts down on how many items you're actually remembering • Baddley’s Working Memory Model–...
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This note was uploaded on 02/13/2012 for the course PSYC 101 taught by Professor Loeb during the Fall '08 term at UNC.
- Fall '08