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Unformatted text preview: EXAM #3 PSYCHOLOGY 101 Fall, 2011 REVIEW SHEET (there will be 57 questions total; exercises and film clips shown in class are fair game) Chapter 7 Memory Basic memory processes (encoding, storage, and retrieval) Encoding processing of information into the memory system take information and put it into form or code to process in mind attention is key! Is the filter for memories to conscious awareness Two ways to enrich encoding 1. Elaborating create your own memory 2. visual imagery- create visual image Relevant theory Dual processing theory - Paivio If you use visual and semantic encoding even better chance of recalling information Levels of processing Theory- (Craik) 3 levels of processing that get progressively deeper 1. Visual codes (shallow) represent info as images Look at what the word looks like (capitals, lowercase letters) 2. Acoustic/phonetic codes (intermediate) storing info as series of sounds Word rhyming 3. Semantic codes (deep) coding info by thinking about actual meaning of term Meaning of word; does the word fit the sentence Best ability to enhance recall later on Multitasking Craik and Kester (2000) Experimental group who had to divide attention didnt do as well compared to control group Storage store memory (sensory short term, long term) Human memory ~ computer memory Incoming information goes through 3 types of storage 1. Sensory memory (very brief) preserves info in original form for very short time (1/4 sec); 1 st stage of incoming information Eg: wave sparkler in the dark looks like a circle but actually is only one dot sensory memory creates circle Sensory memory fills in the gaps Iconic memory subset of sensory memory Momentary sensory memory in the form of images Photographic image lasting no longer than one second Echoic memory subset of sensory memory Echo of auditory stimuli Momentary sensory memory of auditory stimulus even if attention is somewhere else 1-2 seconds where you can repeat the name 2. Short term memory limited in capacity can maintain information that is not rehearsed for ~15 seconds Used undergrads to test this out lolz Rehearsal can keep items in STM Maintenance rehearsal more time you spend rehearsal, fewer rehearsals youll need the next day More you rehearse, more you will remember Elaborative rehearsal - conscious repetition of information Do it to maintain it in consciousness Use repetition to move info into LTM Focus is on repetition George Miller (1956) Study on capacity Magical number seven, plus or minus two some limits on our capacity for processing information Chunking creating less units by chunking items together Need to be meaningful chunks of information that cuts down on how many items you're actually remembering Baddleys Working Memory Model...
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- Fall '08