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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 5: Gases • Properties of Gases • Gas Laws (pressure, volume, temperature, moles) • Gases in Chemical Reactions • The Kinetic Model of Gases Gaseous elements Pressure = Force/Area A barometer A manometer Boyle’s Experiments V ~ 1/P If a fixed amount of gas is released into a larger container, how much force does it exert? P ~ 1/V Boyle’s Law: P 1 V 1 = P 2 V 2 If the volume of a gas is constrained to a smaller container, how much force does it exert? Decrease volume more collisions V 1 V 2 P 1 V 1 = P 2 V 2 Relationship between volume and pressure. • Ex. 1 A sample of gas occupies 21 liters at a pressure of 2.2 atm. What would be the volume if the pressure was increased to 6.2 atm? • Ex. 2 A sample of O 2 occupies 10.0 L at 785 torr. At what pressure would it occupy 14.5 L? Charle’s Law: If the temperature of gas is increased, how will its volume respond (if the pressure is kept constant)? The point where a gas would have zero volume! P ~ T If a gas is heated, how much force does it exert (if the volume is kept constant)? Combined Gas Law (Boyle and Charle’s) P 1 V 1 = P 2 V 2 T 1 T 2 Recap of Gases: Boyle’s Law: Charles’s Law: P 1 V 1 = P 2 V 2 V 1 /T 1 = V 2 / T 2 P 1 V 1 = P 2 V 2 T 1 T 2 1) Gas equations should make sense: volume, pressure, temperature 2) Watch your units! (K, L, atm) One standardized set of conditions = STP = o C (273 K) and 1.00 atm (760. Torr) • Ex. 3 A balloon filled with He occupies 413 mL at 100. o C. At what temperature would it occupy 577 mL if the pressure was constant? • Ex. 4 A sample of hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) occupies 210 L at 27 o C at 1200 T. What volume would it occupy at STP ? How much volume does 1 mole of gas occupy If one mole of Argon occupies 22.1 L , how much volume will be occupied by: one mole CO 2 one mole N 2 one mole O 2 Liters How much volume does 1 mole of gas occupy Ideal gas: 22.41 L per mole Ex. 5 What is the density of a gas that has a molar mass of 44.01 g/mol at STP? What is “R”?...
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course M 408c taught by Professor Mcadam during the Spring '06 term at University of Texas at Austin.
 Spring '06
 McAdam

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