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c-13 - EM 28 Feb 99 Chapter 13 Lubricant Specifications and...

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EM 1110-2-1424 28 Feb 99 13-1 Chapter 13 Lubricant Specifications and Selection 13-1. Introduction Proper selection of a lubricant depends on understanding the lubricating regime (i.e., film, mixed, boundary), established conventions of classifications, and an ability to interpret and apply the producer’s product data specifications to the equipment. Without this background, it is impossible to make an informed selection or substitution. 13-2. Lubricant Classification Professional societies and organizations have established classifications for oil and grease. The most widely encountered systems are those of the following organizations: ! SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers) ! API (American Petroleum Institute) ! AGMA (American Gear Manufacturers Association), ! ISO (International Standards Organization) ! NLGI (National Lubricating Grease Institute). a. Oil classification. Oil is normally classified by viscosity grade, additives, use, or by the producer's brand name. Some oils are classified as nonspecialized industrial oils. (1) Classification by viscosity grade. Classification according to viscosity is the most prevalent method of describing oils, and the most common classification systems are those of the SAE, AGMA, and ISO. Each organization uses a different kinematic viscosity range numbering system. (2) Classification by additives. (a) Oil may be further classified according to the additives included in the oil to enhance its performance properties as follows: ! Inhibited or RO (rust and oxidation inhibited) ! AW (antiwear) ! EP (extreme pressure) ! Compounded ! Residual.
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EM 1110-2-1424 28 Feb 99 13-2 The first three classes are discussed throughout this manual and require no further explanation; they contain the indicated additives. Compounded oil contains from 3 to 10 percent fatty or synthetic fatty oils. It is also called steam cylinder oil. The added fat reduces the coefficient of friction in situations where an extreme amount of sliding friction occurs. A very common application is in worm gear systems. Com- pounded oil may be composed of either a normal mineral oil or a residual oil, depending on the desired viscosity. (b) Residual compounds are heavy-grade straight mineral oils or EP oils. These compounds are normally mixed with a diluent to increase ease of application. After application, the diluent evaporates, leaving a heavy adhesive lubricant coating. Residuals are often used for open-gear applications where tackiness is required to increase adhesion. This type of heavy oil should not be confused with grease. Residual oil with lower viscosity is also used in many closed-gear systems. Compounded oil may contain residual oil if the desired viscosity is high. (3) Classification according to use. This system of classification arises because refining additives and type of petroleum (paraffinic or naphthenic) may be varied to provide desirable qualities for a given application. Some of the more common uses are: ! Compressor oils (air, refrigerant).
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