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1 - Chapter 1 Introduction Chapter 1 Objectives Computer...

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Chapter 1 Introduction
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2 Chapter 1 Objectives Computer organization and architecture. Units of measure common to computer systems. Computer as a layered system. Components von Neumann architecture and the function of basic computer components .
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3 Why study computer organization and architecture? Design better programs, including system software such as compilers, operating systems, and device drivers. Optimize program behavior. Evaluate (benchmark) computer system performance. Understand time, space, and price tradeoffs. 1.1 Overview
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4 1.1 Overview Computer organization physical aspects of computer systems. E.g., circuit design, control signals, memory types. How does a computer work? Computer architecture Logical aspects of system as seen by the programmer. E.g., instruction sets, instruction formats, data types, addressing modes. How do I design a computer?
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5 1.2 Computer Components Principle of Equivalence of Hardware and Software: Anything that can be done with software can also be done with hardware, and anything that can be done with hardware can also be done with software.* * Assuming speed is not a concern .
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6 At the most basic level, a computer is a device consisting of three pieces: A processor to interpret and execute programs A memory to store both data and programs A mechanism for transferring data to and from the outside world. 1.2 Computer Components
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7 Consider this advertisement: 1.3 An Example System M H z ? B P C I U S L 1 a c h e What does it all mean??
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8 Measures of capacity and speed: Kilo- (K) = 1 thousand = 10 3 and 2 10 Mega- (M) = 1 million = 10 6 and 2 20 Giga- (G) = 1 billion = 10 9 and 2 30 Tera- (T) = 1 trillion = 10 12 and 2 40 Peta- (P) = 1 quadrillion = 10 15 and 2 50 1.3 An Example System
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9 Hertz = clock cycles per second (frequency) 1MHz = 1,000,000Hz Processor speeds are measured in MHz or GHz. Byte = a unit of storage 1KB = 2 10 = 1024 Bytes 1MB = 2 20 = 1,048,576 Bytes Main memory (RAM) is measured in MB Disk storage is measured in GB for small systems, TB for large systems. 1.3 An Example System
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10 1.3 An Example System Measures of time and space: Milli- (m) = 1 thousandth = 10 -3 Micro- ( μ ) = 1 millionth = 10 -6 Nano- (n) = 1 billionth = 10 -9 Pico- (p) = 1 trillionth = 10 -12 Femto- (f) = 1 quadrillionth = 10 -15
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Millisecond = 1 thousandth of a second Hard disk drive access times are often 10 to 20 milliseconds. Nanosecond = 1 billionth of a second Main memory access times are often 50 to 70 nanoseconds. Micron (micrometer) = 1 millionth of a meter Circuits on computer chips are measured in microns. 1.3 An Example System
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