BasicComputerOrganizationandDesign-1

BasicComputerOrganizationandDesign-1 - Kingdom Of Saudi...

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Basic Computer Organization and Design Chapter 5 in “Computer System Architecture” 1 Kingdom Of Saudi Arabia Al-Imam Muhammad Ibn Saud Islamic University College of Computer and Information Sciences Information System Department 1 st semester, 2010 – 2011 CS 224: Computer Organization T. Hala A. Al-Rumaih
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Instruction Codes The general-purpose digital computer is capable of executing various microoperations and instructed to what specific sequence of operations it must perform. The user of a computer can control the process by means of a program. A program is a set of instructions that specify the operations, operands, and the sequence by which processing has to occur. A computer instruction is a binary code that specifies a sequence of microoperations for the computer. Instruction codes together with data are stored in memory. The computer reads each instruction from memory and places it in a register. The control then interprets the binary code of the instruction and proceeds to execute it by issuing a sequence of microoperations 2
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Instruction Codes (Cont.) The instruction code divided into parts, each having its own particular interpretation. The most basic part of an instruction code is its operation part . The operation code of an instruction is a group of bits that define such operations as add, subtract, multiply, shift, and complement. The number of bits required for the operation code of an instruction depends on the total number of operations available in the computer. The operation code must consist of at least n bits for a given 2" distinct operations. 3
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(Cont.) Consider a computer with 64 distinct operations, one of them being an ADD operation. The operation code consists of six bits, with a bit configuration 110010 assigned to the ADD operation. At this point we must recognize the relationship between a computer operation and a microoperation. An operation is part of an instruction stored in computer memory. For every operation code, the control issues a sequence of microoperations needed for the hardware implementation of the specified operation. For this reason, an operation code is sometimes called a
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BasicComputerOrganizationandDesign-1 - Kingdom Of Saudi...

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