DigitalComponents-1

DigitalComponents-1 - Kingdom Of Saudi Arabia Al-Imam...

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Digital Components Chapter 2 in “Computer System Architecture” 1 Kingdom Of Saudi Arabia Al-Imam Muhammad Ibn Saud Islamic University College of Computer and Information Sciences Information System Department 1 st semester, 2010 – 2011 CS 224: Computer Organization T. Hala A. Al-Rumaih
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Integrated Circuits An integrated circuit (abbreviated IC) is a small silicon semiconductor crystal, called a chip, containing the electronic components for the digital gates. The various gates are interconnected inside the chip to form the required circuit. The chip is mounted in a ceramic or plastic container, and connections are welded by thin gold wires to external pins to form the integrated circuit. The number of pins may range from 14 in a small IC package to 100 or more in a larger package. Each IC has a numeric designation printed on the surface of the package for identification. 2
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Integrated Circuits (Cont.) As the technology of ICs has improved, the number of gates that can be put in a single chip has increased considerably. The differentiation between those chips that have a few internal gates and those having hundreds or thousands of gates is made by a customary reference to a package as being either: Small-scale integration (SSI): less than 10 gates Medium-scale integration (MSI): 10 to 200 gates Large-scale integration (LSI): 200 to thousand gates Very-large-scale integration (VLSI): thousands gates 3
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Integrated Circuits (Cont.) Digital integrated circuits are also classified by the specific circuit technology to which they belong which can referred as a digital logic family . The basic circuit in each technology is either a NAND, a NOR, or an inverter gate. The electronic components that are employed in the construction of the basic circuit are usually used for the name of the technology. Many different logic families of integrated circuits have been introduced commercially. The following are the most popular. 1. TTL Transistor-transistor logic 2. ECL Emitter-coupled logic 3. MOS Metal-oxide semiconductor 4. CMOS Complementary metal-oxide semiconductor 4
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Integrated Circuits (Cont.) Because of their many advantages, integrated circuits are used exclusively to provide various digital components needed in the design of computer systems. To understand the organization and design of digital
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DigitalComponents-1 - Kingdom Of Saudi Arabia Al-Imam...

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