DigitalLogicCircuits-1

# DigitalLogicCircuits-1 - Digital Logic Circuits Chapter 1...

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Unformatted text preview: Digital Logic Circuits Chapter 1 in “Computer System Architecture” Kingdom Of Saudi Arabia Al-Imam Muhammad Ibn Saud Islamic University College of Computer and Information Sciences Information System Department 1 st semester, 2010 – 2011 CS 224: Computer Organization 1 T. Hala A. Al-Rumaih Digital Computers • Digital : • The digital computer is a digital system that perform various computational tasks. • The word digital implies that the information in the computer is represented by variables that take a limited number of discrete values. • The digital computer has emerged from the first electronic digital computers that used primarily for numerical computations on discrete elements which are the decimal digits (0..9) • Digital components constrained to take only discrete two values and are said to be binary, because: • Digital computers function more reliable if only two states are used. • The physical restriction of components. • Human logic tends to be binary. 2 Digital Computers (Cont.) • Bit: • Digital computers use the binary number system, which has two digits: 0 and 1. • A binary digit is called a bit . • By using various coding techniques, groups of bits in a digital computer are used to represent many different things such as instructions, decimal digits or letters. EX : 1001011 75 1001011 K 3 Digital Computers (Cont.) • Program: • A computer system is sometimes subdivided in two functional entities: 1. Hardware. 2. Software. • Computer software consists of the instructions and data. • A sequence of instructions is called program . The data that are manipulated by the program constitute the data base. • There are two types of the program: 1. System software: a collection of programs whose purpose is to make more effective use of the computer by compensating for the difference that exits between users need and the capability of the hardware, ex: operating system 2. Application software: It is written by the user for the purpose of solving particular problems, ex: high level language program. 4 Digital Computers (Cont.) • Computer Hardware: • It consists of all the electronic components and electromechanically devices that comprise the physical entity of the device. • It divided in to three major parts: 5 Random-access memory (RAM) Random-access memory (RAM) CPU CPU Input-output processor (IOP) Input-output processor (IOP) Input Device Input Device Output Device Output Device Digital Computers (Cont.) 1. The central processing unit (CPU): • arithmetic and logic unit for manipulating data. • A number of registers for storing data. • Control circuits for fetching and executing instructions....
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DigitalLogicCircuits-1 - Digital Logic Circuits Chapter 1...

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