Test 1 Essays - Intro Biology Test Essay Questions Please...

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Intro Biology - Test Essay Questions Please formulate an answer, in outline format where possible, to the following questions using the material presented in lecture, lab and the assigned readings. 1) Describe the three inferences based on five observations of the theory of evolution as formulated by Charles Darwin and analyzed by Ernst Mayr. Identify the most relevant data available today that confirm the theory. What did other individuals contribute to the process of the formulation of this theory? Observation 1: High reproductive capacity of species should lead to a huge population growth over a long time Observation 2: Populations of species remains more or less stable Observation 3: Natural resources are limited o Inference 1: Production of larger quantity of offspring than resources leads to a struggle with the environment for survival of individuals to live and produce more offspring Observation 4: Individuals within a species vary in their exact characteristics Observation 5: Much of this variation in inherited o Inference 2: Individuals with inherited characteristics that best fit that environment are most likely to survive and reproduce o Inference 3: Unequal reproduction of individuals within a population will result in gradual change in population with favorable characteristics accumulating over generations Today’s data: o Fossil Record- indicates the presence of increasing complexity over geologic time—2 billon years o Anatomical and physiological similarities and relatedness among species evidences a progression o The development (embryology) of organisms show relatedness when the adult form may look very different Ex: gill slits present during the development of mammalian embryos Haekel’s principle: development recapitulates evolutionary history o Molecular relatedness- sequence of nucleotides in genes and amino acids in proteins from bacteria to humans…relatedness can be rather precisely traced by examining the genes in detail… we can infer that it is due to a common ancestor Other individuals: o Cuvier and Lyell - geology, slow observable processes shaped earth, earth much older than 6000 years Lyell’s book= Principles of geology o Malthus- Essays on Principles of Population Species overproduce Not enough resources for all o Lamarck- published theory of evolution Relatedness, fossil record—similarities and a general trend towards complexity Use and disuse Inheritance (acquired characteristics)
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2) Describe the scientific method and describe how the method was applied in the paper, “Natural Selection of Darwin’s Finches,” using the concepts of hypothesis, rationale for formulation of an hypothesis, data collection and testing of hypotheses, refinement of hypotheses based on test results.
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