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Test Questions - Intro Biology - Test Essay Questions...

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Intro Biology - Test Essay Questions Please formulate an answer, in outline format where possible, to the following questions using the material presented in lecture, lab and the assigned readings. 1) Describe the three inferences based on five observations of the theory of evolution as formulated by Charles Darwin and analyzed by Ernst Mayr. Identify the most relevant data available today that confirm the theory. What did other individuals contribute to the process of the formulation of this theory? 2) Describe the scientific method and describe how the method was applied in the paper, “Natural Selection of Darwin’s Finches,” using the concepts of hypothesis, rationale for formulation of an hypothesis, data collection and testing of hypotheses, refinement of hypotheses based on test results. 3) Toads and professors appear in many respects to be different. Biologists assert that toads and professors are a consequence of evolution and that both types of organisms developed from fertilized eggs following instructions carried in their genes. Explain the molecular basis for the theory of evolution, including the precise reasons why genotype (or nucleotide sequences in DNA) determines phenotype. 4) Describe the structure of the atom and the relationship between this structure and covalent, ionic and hydrogen bonds. 5) Water was one of the most common molecules on the surface of the earth as the earth's crust cooled and life evolved. Due to its prevalence, water was in an optimal position to become the biological solvent. What is it about the structure of water that both facilitated its role as solvent and how did this structure influence the evolution/selection of the other specific groups of molecules, such as proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and ions, that contribute to the structure and function of cells and organisms? 6) Compare in detail, using specific molecular diagrams, the molecular structure of proteins, carbohydrates and lipids, indicating in detail how these structures result in their respective functions in biological systems. 7) What are the functions of a plasma membrane (cell surface membrane) and what aspects of its molecular structure promote these functions? 8) Define the mechanisms by which molecules move into and out of cells in detail, including the energy requirements of such processes and how this energy is provided. 9) Describe the structure of an enzyme at the molecular level and precisely how it mediates a chemical reaction. Please include a description of free energy and energy of activation as they relate to enzyme mediated reactions. Precisely how do enzymes reduce the energy of activation. 10) Moving from the nucleus through the extracellular matrix, discuss the roles of specific proteins in
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This note was uploaded on 02/09/2012 for the course BIOL 104 taught by Professor Smith during the Spring '09 term at Arkansas State.

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Test Questions - Intro Biology - Test Essay Questions...

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