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4) Seedless Nonvascular Plants(Phylum Bryophyta)

4) Seedless Nonvascular Plants(Phylum Bryophyta) - plants e...

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AP Biology Seedless Nonvascular Plants (Bryophytes) 1) Characteristics a) The extant land plant that is the most closest to the plants from water (algae) b) 3 phyla of herbaceous (non-woody plants): Liverworts (Phylum Hepatophyta ), hornworts (Phylum Anthocerophyta ), and mosses (Phylum Bryophyta ) c) Basic structures of plants (roots and leaves) barely exist; primitive d) Still need water for sperms to swim (such as raindrops) e) Sporophyte and gametophyte are dependent to each other 2) Life Cycle 3) Bryophyte Gametophytes a) Dominant stage in the life cycle (larger & live longer); easily visible with eyes b) Consists of protonemata (green filaments) and gametophores (gamete bearers) c) Protonemata increases the surface area; therefore results in more uptake of water and nutrients d) Very thin body structures enable the plants to distribute substances without vascular tissues; this explains why bryophytes cannot form forests or woody
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Unformatted text preview: plants e) Rhizoids exist; not composed of any vascular tissues and not involved in conducting any substance (not vascular tissues, therefore) f) Flagellated sperm in antheridia 4) Bryophyte Sporophyte a) Grow out of archegonia; very miniscule structure b) Consists of foot, seta, and capsule Foot = Absorbs nutrients from gametophyte Seta = conducts these materials to the sporangium (in this case, capsule) Capsule = Utilizes energies or nutrients to produce spores by meiosis c) Cannot live independently from gametophytes d) Peristome = tooth-like structure that helps to disperse spores 5) Ecological and Economic Importance of Mosses a) Sphagnum, or “peat moss” forms extensive deposits of partially decayed organic material known as peat: it plays an important role in the Earth’s carbon cycle <Figure 1> The Generalized Structures of Moss <Figure 2> Life Cycles of Moss...
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