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5) Seedless Vascular Plants - AP Biology Seedless Vascular...

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AP Biology Seedless Vascular Plants - Began to evolve during the Carboniferous period - Phylum Lycophyta (club mosses), Pterophytes (Horsetails), 1) Origins & Traits of Vascular Plants a) Life Cycles with Dominant Sporophytes Start to have branched sporophytes with independent sporophyte (not dependent upon gametophytes anymore for nutrients or water) Sporophytes are larger & more complex; reduced gametophyte stage b) Vascular Tissues (Tissues that conducts substances): Xylem and Phloem Show vascular tissues ( Aglaophyton major ) according to the fossil records: Figure 1 Xylem = conducts water and minerals by tracheid (dead specialized cells) = move upward; lignified (strengthened) by polymer called lignin Phloem = conducts organic compounds (i.e sugars, amino acids, and etc.) = move downward; consist of alive cells Significance of lignified vascular tissue: made the plants grow taller and give much more stronger support against the gravity
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