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Chapter 40 Notes (Basic Structures and Functions to the Animals)

Chapter 40 Notes (Basic Structures and Functions to the Animals)

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Chapter 40 Notes (Basic Structures and Functions to the Animals) AP Biology & Honors Human Anatomy 1. Epithelial Tissues: Tissues that cover the outside of something. - Key terms: Cuboidal (Dice) / Columnar (Bricks) / Squamous (Flat Floor Tiles) Simple (One layer) / Stratified (Multiple layers) Pseudostratified (Not quite multiple layers) a. Simple epithelium (One-layer Tissues) a.i. Simple columnar epithelium (One-layer bricks) - Secretes digestive juices and absorbs nutrients - Found in the digestive tracts a.ii. Simple squamous epithelium (One-layer flat floor tiles) - Very thin tissue; therefore effective in the exchange of material by diffusion. - Found in blood vessels and lungs b. Stratified epithelium (Multiple-layer Tissues) b.i. Stratified columnar epithelium (Multiple-layer bricks) - Covers the inner surface of urethra (Excretion) b.ii. Stratified squamous epithelium (Mutliple-layer flat floor titles) - Very quick regeneration occurs - Found in the parts those are easily eroded (such as esophagus, stomach…) b.iii. Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium - Forms a mucous, sticky membrane on the respiratory tract - The beating cilia move quickly to keep the lungs clean c. Cubodial epithelium (Dice-shape epithelium) c.i. Cells specialized in secretion – endocrine system (hormones) 2. Connective Tissues: Tissues that have significant roles of connecting something. a. Bones a.i. Consist of mainly calcium and phosphorus; very hard skeleton structure a.ii. Made from osteoblasts a.iii. Located at very inside of the body b. Adipose Tissues b.i. Diamond shape b.ii. Simply fat droplets b.iii. Play huge roles in insulation (conserves energy and heat in the body.) - Swells when energy is stored.
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