Chapter 43 Notes (Immune System)-

Chapter 43 Notes (Immune System)- - Chapter 43 Notes(Immune...

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Chapter 43 Notes (Immune System) AP Biology & Honors Human Anatomy 1. Innate Immunity a. A type of immunity that you are born with. (1 st Line Defense) b. Involves nonspecific responses to pathogens. c. External defense i. Skin: Physical barriers that bar the entry of microorganisms and viruses Prevention from invasion of bacteria and virus, covered with mucous membrane. ii. Sweat gland: Excretes substance that makes pH high (preventing from growth) iii. Acidic environment in the stomach iv. Lysozyme: Enzyme that breaks down the cell wall of bacteria It breaks down the cell wall of bacteria through chemical reaction. It may work in conjunction with secretions like respiratory pathway, tears, perspiration, and mucus. d. Internal Defense i. Many multiple of cells use “phagocytosis”- a form of endocytosis. Four different types of leukocytes: neutrophils, macrophage, eosinophills, dendritic cells (all similar functions – phagocytosis) Produced from bone marrow. ii. lymphatic system: An active role in defending the body from pathogens Spleen and lymph nodes, adenoids and tonsils, appendix and special portions of the small intestine iii. Antimicrobial Proteins Numerous proteins function in innate defense by attacking microbes directly of by impeding their reproduction. Complement system: made out of 30 proteins which can cause lysis of invading cells and help trigger inflammation Interferons: provide innate defense against viruses and help activate macrophages. iv. Natural Killer Cells (NK cells) Attack viral infected cells or cancer cells by the process called apoptosis. v. Inflammatory response: high temperature, edema, redness, pain, increased blood flow. A major chemical substance controls this response is histamine. - It is produced from mast cell - It is released to the damaged part. - Vasodilatation and increase in the permeability of blood vessels: congregate all the cells to the damaged part.
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