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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 45 Notes (Endocrine System) AP Biology & Honors Human Anatomy 1. Endocrine system and hormones a. Endocrine system = coordinates the control of hormones by secreting into the ductless. b. Hormones = chemical messengers that control the certain set point (regulate cellular function) i. Modified amino acids, peptides, or steroid molecules. ii. Carried by the circulatory system. iii. Specific biological responses from target cells iv. Very slow response v. Can’t be used to communicate between different organisms. vi. Work directly on the target cell – a cell containing receptors. vii. The same hormone may have multiple different effects on target cells that have Different receptors for the hormone Different signal transduction pathways Different proteins for carrying out the response viii. Feedback mechanism can cause the amount of hormones. ix. Antagonistic action exists (i.g insulin and glucagon) 2. Three different cell signaling in hormone mechanisms. a. Water-soluble hormones i. Most common one ii. The receptors are located at the surface of the cytoplasm. iii. Very few regulatory proteins present inside of the cell for amplification through transduction cascade. b. Water-insoluble hormones i. The receptors are located inside of the nucleus. ii. No regulatory proteins for amplification, but rather works directly on the genes – no transduction is required. c. Local Regulators i. Work as both neurotransmitter and hormones ii. They travel a short distance through interstitial fluid, and produce an effect in a cell immediately adjacent to the original secreting cell....
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