Chapter 50 Notes (Introduction to the Ecology)

Chapter 50 Notes (Introduction to the Ecology) - Chapter 50...

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1. The Introduction and Background of Ecology a. Ecology is the scientific study of the interactions between organisms and the environment. b. Ecology shows reveals the richness of the biosphere. c. Ecologists may study populations and communities of organisms. d. Ecological studies may involve the use of models and computers. 2. Organization of Ecosystem a. Ecology spans increasingly comprehensive levels of organization, from individuals to ecosystems. b. From ecosystems to individuals… i. Biosphere: All the regions of the earth that contain living things, the sum of all the planet’s ecosystems. ii. Ecosystem: The interrelationships between the organisms in a community and their physical environment iii. Population: A group of individuals all of the same species living in the same area. iv. Community: A group of populations living in the same area. 3. Subfields of Ecology a. Organismal ecology – The study of how the organism’s structure and physiology are changed as the environment changes. b. Ecosystem Ecology – The study of how energy flow and chemical cycling among the various biotic and abiotic components work. c. Population Ecology – The study of how many individuals of a particular species live in an area are affected by the factors. d. Landscape Ecology – The study of how the ecosystem is arrayed. 4. Subfields of Ecology a. The biogeographic realms described by Darwin, Wallace, and others are associated with patterns of continental drift. b. Dispersal – the movement of individuals from high population to low population i. Natural Range Expansions Introduced Species - Often fail to colonize the new area. - May become common enough to become pests. - Can disrupt the balance of the natural species with which they become associated. ii. Species transplants – one direct way of determining if dispersal is a key factor in limiting distribution of organisms. 5.
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Chapter 50 Notes (Introduction to the Ecology) - Chapter 50...

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