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Chapter 50-54 Summary Notes (Ecology Overview)

Chapter 50-54 Summary Notes (Ecology Overview) - ECOLOGY...

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ECOLOGY NOTES (Chapters 50-54) Ecology = Study of the interactions between organisms and their environment Organisms  populations   communities   ecosystems   biomes   biosphere Ecosystem = Biotic factors + Abiotic factors Habitat- “location” - where it lives Niche- “occupation” - where it lives PLUS interactions  with biotic and abiotic factors PRIMARY PRODUCTIVITY = amount of light energy converted to chemical energy; due to photosynthesis  Total primary production in ecosystem =  GROSS primary productivity (not all available to consumers) NET productivity = GROSS productivity - energy used during  RESPIRATION DOMINANT SPECIES : Most abundant species or highest biomass (total weight) in community KEYSTONE SPECIES - species that has disproportionate effect on ecosystem relative to its abundance     Ex: Sea otters in kelp forests HERBIVORES - eat plant CARRNIVORES - meat eaters OMNIVORES - eat both plants and animals DETRITIVORES - scavenge/eat dead organisms DECOMPOSERS-  absorb nutrients from dead organisms DEMOGRAPHY : study of population statistics TYPE I : low death rates in early/midlife; sharp death rate in old age TYPE II:  constant death rate over life span TYPE III:  Very high early death rate; few surviving to old age     BIOTIC ABIOTIC Living things; All other organisms- animals, plants,  microorganisms nutrients; wind; climate MATTER recycles WITHIN ecosystem and is reused Carbon cycle  Nitrogen cycle Water cycle  Phosphorus cycle ENERGY flows ONE WAY THROUGH ecosystem and is used up Food chains/webs- Energy passes to next TROPHIC level as      organisms are eaten; 1st level always = producers (autotrophs) 1° consumers (heterotrophs) eat producers 2° consumers eat 1° consumers 3° consumers eat 2° consumers Only 10% of energy at each level is passed on      to next trophic level (limits # of levels possible) Species can feed at more than one trophic level
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BIOTIC FACTORS that affect the distribution of organisms: COMPETITIVE EXCLUSION PRINCIPLE- no two species can share same niche One with reproductive advantage will eliminate the other PREDATION
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Chapter 50-54 Summary Notes (Ecology Overview) - ECOLOGY...

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