Learning - Learning 1 a relatively long lasting change in...

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Learning 1. a relatively long lasting change in thought or behavior produced by environmental events a. refers to actual changes in the person b. performance: new behaviors produced by these changes 2. basic laws of learning 3. two basic types of learning a. classical conditioning : learning new connections between stimuli b. operant conditioning : learning new connections between acts and their consequences I. Classical Conditioning : the processes involved when an organism learns to associate two events 1. Ivan Pavlov, the salivary reflex in dogs a. Experimental situation: i. before conditioning: food is presented the dog salivates ii. during conditioning: a bell is rung food is presented the dog salivates iii. after conditioning: a bell is rung the dog salivates b. Explanation i. food naturally causes the dog to salivate ii. the bell becomes associated with the food iii. the dog learns that the bell predicts the coming of food iv. the dog salivates to the bell 2. Terminology a . unconditioned stimulus (UCS) : a stimulus which innately produces the unconditioned response i. food is the UCS b. unconditioned response (UCR) : a response the innately occurs to the UCS i. salivation to the food is the UCR c. conditioned stimulus (CS) : a stimulus which is initially neutral (it never naturally produces the conditioned response), but which comes to produce the conditioned response after being associated with the UCS i. the bell is the CS d. conditioned response (CR): a response that is made naturally to the UCS, by never to the CS; the learned response to the CS i. salivation to the bell is the CR 1
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3. Mechanism: classical conditioning involves learning the UCS-CS relationship a. the UCS naturally elicits the UCR b. during conditioning, the UCS elicits the UCR in the presence of the CS c. after many UCS-CS pairings, the CS produces the CR without the UCS i. the CR is always weaker than the UCR ii. The CR is sometimes in the opposite direction from the UCR (for example, the mechanism of drug tolerance) d. the CR is not voluntarily made to the CS; it is naturally elicited by it after the CS becomes associated to the UCS 4. Parameters of classical conditioning a. more pairings of the UCS and the US produce a stronger CR i. these pairings reinforce (RNF) the UCS-CS relationship a. called reinforced trials b. extinction : if the CS is repeatedly presented without the UCS, the CR will
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Learning - Learning 1 a relatively long lasting change in...

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