Personality - Personality: enduring patterns of thought,...

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Personality : enduring patterns of thought, feeling, and behavior I. Two Goals: A. describe the structure of personality B. study individual differences in personality II. Trait Theory : there exists a set of basic traits that characterize a person’s behavior in a variety of situations A. personality traits 1. exist on a continuum a. people fall at different points 2. should allow predictions about behavior in novel situations 3. should allow many behaviors to be summarized by the trait B. characteristics of traits 1. great personal consistency over time a. 2 behaviors that seem different may reflect the same underlying trait 2. interaction between people and situations is critical 3. people tend to overestimate person constancy in others and in themselves C. major question: how to identify basic personality traits? D. Personality Tests : tests to identify individual personality traits 1. Two major types of tests a. structured (objective) personality tests b. unstructured (projective) personality tests 2. Structured (objective) personality tests a. assess personality along several scales, each of which measures a personality trait b. hundreds of true/false questions, each of which assess a particular trait c. score on each scale indicates the degree to which that trait characterizes the person d. example test: Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Test ( MMPI ) i. 10 scales: a. hypochondria b. depression c. conversion hysteria d. psychopathic deviance e. masculine — feminine f. paranoia g. neurosis h. schizophrenia i. hypomania j. introversion ii. values of the scales are considered relative to each other 1
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iii. Problem: people may misrepresent themselves a. validity scales i. lying scale ii. bizarre scale b. low predictive validity (.30) 3. Unstructured (projective) personality tests a. a problem with structured personality tests: someone who is lying to himself i. wanted a test that would get past the subject’s own defenses b. person is given an unstructured task; the structure given indicates unconscious issues c. example tests: i. Rorschach Ink Blot Test
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Personality - Personality: enduring patterns of thought,...

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