CH 301 CH16 notes part 1

CH 301 CH16 notes part 1 - Chapter 16: Liquids and Solids:...

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Chapter 16: Liquids and Solids: CONDENSED phases of matter. Van der Waal’s equation: gas particles have size and some attractive force. High P, Low T: particles close enough - attractive effects become significant gas condenses to liquid (or deposits to solid) further cooling of liquid - freezes to solid. Attractive forces between particles: due to some COULOMBIC attraction between: positive particle charge q+ q + q - r negative particle charge q- separated by a distance r: Coulomb’s Law: F v (q+ )(q- ) r 2 Energy = Force x Distance so Potential Energy of Attraction E p = (q+ )(q- ) 4 3H 0 r Types of Forces INTRAmolecular force: covalent bonding between individual atoms in molecule or polyatomic ion. e.g., bond between: C and O in CO 2 S a n d O i n SO 4 2- ionic bonding between individual ions in lattice of a crystal e.g., bond between: Mg 2+ and Cl - in MgCl 2 Mg 2+ and SO 4 2- in MgSO 4 INTERmolecular forces: several types (see following. .) between individual molecules of a compound or mixture. e.g., forces between: separate CO 2 molecules in CO 2 separate H 2 O molecules in H 2 O Warning! If you don’t remember how to tell if a compound is covalent, polar covalent or ionic: GO BACK AND REVIEW CHAPTERS 13 & 14 REMEMBER: A molecule which is polar overall will have a NET DIPOLE. From now on we refer to this as a DIPOLE. O H H G G G + Dipoles Water is a POLAR molecule - has a net DIPOLE: Each H 2 O molecule orients itself to others: O side is negatively charged (d-) so is closest to a positive region of another H 2 O molecule . Side wi G - G + G - G + G - G + th H’s (d+) would be closest to a negative region of another H 2 O molecule . ipole-Dipole Interaction a SOLID of polar molecules: ction ; minimize repulsion. (Fig16.2) y small for gas phase at low pressures (recall Ch 5?) ydrogen Bonding (fig 16.3) e Interaction. ONLY between H and F, H and O, or, H and N.
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CH 301 CH16 notes part 1 - Chapter 16: Liquids and Solids:...

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