10-10-05 - Roots of Muslim Terrorism

10-10-05 - Roots of Muslim Terrorism - Roots of Muslim...

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Roots of Muslim Terrorism 3 arenas for the growth of Muslim Radicalism: India, Wahabiism, and Egypt. Azhar Seminary is in Cairo – it is a very important Sunni seminary. Egypt is like “DC, NYC, and LA” – secularism, religion, art, and politics all rolled into one. The Caliphate ended in 1924, but the transition to nationhood was mediated by the European powers. One place that did not happen was Turkey. The occupation of Istanbul was the first time it had not been in Ottoman hands for 600 years. The Europeans wanted to “carve up the turkey.” The remaining officer corps reformed themselves as a Republican force, organized troops, and took advantage of European war– weariness to throw out the occupiers. Turkey was founded on the basis of anger at the Sultan for giving in too easily to the Europeans, and to the Arabs for allowing the Europeans in too far. They saw the problem as Islam. They abolished the Arabic alphabet and began using Latin characters, and made the call to prayer Turkish. They became militant secularists. In 1923 they removed the Sultan’s position. In 1924, they ended the Caliphate. According to Cole, this produced a crisis in Sunni Islam. Sunni Islam had a well established order structure, with the Caliph as one of the heads. With the head removed, it became much more like Protestantism. Grand Muftis live in each country, giving clerical law. There was a question of what a modern Islamic state would look like. Hasan al-Banna founded the Muslim Brotherhood in 1928 in response to growing Western
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This note was uploaded on 02/14/2012 for the course HIST 241 taught by Professor Cole during the Fall '08 term at University of Michigan.

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10-10-05 - Roots of Muslim Terrorism - Roots of Muslim...

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