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Unformatted text preview: Psychology 250 First Exam Theory lecture and Chapter 1 Six components of the lifespan perspective: 1. Development is lifelong 2. Development is multidimensional multiple forces: genes, biology, environment multiple domains physical (hormones), cognitive (reasoning), social (social circle), emotional (what makes us feel good) 3. Development is multidirectional joint expression of growth/decline 4. Development is plastic (open to change) 5. Development involves growth and maintinence 6. Influences of development a. Normative influences similar for individuals in a particular age gropu b. Historical influences similar for individuals in a certain generation at a formative time in their lives c. Nonnormative influences unusual occurences major impact but not applicable to many people A theory is a perspective that explains why people act the way they do. They allow us to predict behavior and suggest how to intervene to improve behavior. o Organismic theories change stimulated from within o Mechanistic theories change stimulated by environment o Continuous development gradually adding more o Discontinuous development stages qualitative changes o Nature genetic inborn qualities o Nurture learning and experience Freuds theory Children must confront conflicts between inner needs and drives and external demands/expectations. o Id biological needs instant gratification o Ego conscious, rational, problem solving, part-controls urges, reality principle o Superego moral ethical component consists of conscience and ego-ideal Ericksons theory Covers the lifespan, people develop beyond childhood, personality development is physcosocial, there is eight stages that must be mastered in order to develop. More information on the ego than id, understand of who we are as individuals. Emphasize role of experience. Focus on what can be measured, behavior. Eight stages: o Trust vs. mistrust (birth) o Autonomy vs. shame/doubt (toddlers) o Purpose (3-5 years) o Industry vs. inferiority (5-13 years) o Identity vs. role confusion (13-21 years) o Intimacy vs. isolation (21-40 years) o Generativity vs. stagnation (41-65 years) o Ego integrity vs. despair (65+) Learning theories: o Traditional behavioralism classical condition/associative learning o Operant conditioning focuses on consequences of behavior, reinforcement vs. punishment o Cognitive behaviorism/social learning theory observational learning, humans as cognitive beings o Self efficacy an internal belief in own competence that determines whthe we initiate activites, persist in face of failure Piagets cognitive developmental theory child is an active nave scientist who gains knowledge through assimilation and accommodation. 4 stages o Sensorimotor period (0-2) Coordination of sensory input motor responses, development of object permanence o Preoperational period (2-7) development of symbolic thought marked by...
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- Fall '08