CH. 29

CH. 29 - Chapter 29: Respiration Impacts & Issues In...

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Chapter 29: Respiration
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In the US, about 3000 teenagers take up smoking every day Just one cigarette immobilizes cilia that line airway of the lungs for hours, preventing them from sweeping away airborne pathogens and pollutants Nicotine has many side effects, including constriction of blood vessels and raising BP Smoking (up) the risk of deadly lung cancer Secondhand smoke causes about 3000 lung cancer deaths each year Impacts & Issues
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Why Exchange Gases? Gas exchange supports cellular respiration In vertebrates O2- rich air inhaled and O2 deposited in blood O2 transported to body cells by blood Blood transports CO2 from tissues to lungs CO2 released from lungs (and body) during exhalation
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Common Features of Animal Respiratory Systems All animals respiratory systems share 3 features 1. respiratory surfaces must be moist so gases can diffuse across cell membranes 2. cells lining respiratory surface are thin to optimize gas diffusion 3. the respiratory surface area must be large to allow for adequate gas exchange
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Some Animals in Moist Environments Lack Specialized Respiratory Structures Gases diffuse short distances in smaller animals to reach cells Gas exchange optimized by long, flat bodies with greater surface area Examples: roundworms and flatworms
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Some Animals in Moist Environments Lack Specialized Respiratory Structures Low energy demands translate into larger animals that rely on their moist body surface for gas exchange Large size possible because less O2 needed by cells Example: jellyfish
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Lack Specialized Respiratory Structures Some animals bring the environment close to all their cells Allows greater exposure of cells to O2 Examples: sponges
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CH. 29 - Chapter 29: Respiration Impacts & Issues In...

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