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last section - lastsection Dyeingatdifferentprocessingstages

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last section  13:46 Dyeing at different processing stages Special washing techniques Stone washing Random removal of color  Methods Oxidative bleach Pumice stone Cellulose enzymes  Dyeing blends Each fiber dyes differently, requires different dye  Dyes applied in single or separate dyebath Opportunity for decorative effects Union dyeing Solid-colored blended fabric Pigments not fiber specific + inexpensive  Cross-dyeing Multicolored fabric in one operation Plaids, stripes Tone-on-tone/differential dyeing Two different types same generic fiber
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Reserve dyeing Only 1 fiber of blend is dyed  Dye classes dyes for cellulosic fibers Reactive dyes React chemically with fiber to form covalent bonds Bright colors Good wash fastness Also washable wools, silks  Direct dyes Directly without a mordant  Simplest to apply  Bright shades Poor fastness to laundering Not chemically bond, water-soluble  Vat dyes Dye insoluble in water Insoluble---made soluble---dyed on fabric---made insoluble Extremely fast to laundering, light Blue, brown, green shades Expensive, can be polluting  Sulfur dyes
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Light vat dyes Insoluble---made soluble---dyed on fabric---made insoluble  Dark, dull colors Black, brown, navy Cheapest darkest black shades on cellulose Good wash fastness, fair light fastness Chlorine bleach removes color If not rinsed well in processing, fabric weakens in storage Inexpensive  Azoic dyes Creation of dye molecule within fiber Highly colored insoluble dye compound on fabric  Ice dyes Red range Good penetration on heavy fabrics Good colorfastness Crock Transfer of color from surface of colored fabric to adjacent area or to another surface by  rubbing action  Colorfastness Bleed During laundering, dye picked up 
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Migration Dye spreads in adjacent areas  Labeling not required  Dye classes dyes used for wool, silk, and nylon Acid dyes Reaction in acid solution  (acid leveling dye) Colors can be bright Reaction with metal mordant (acid millin)  Colors not as bright Excellent light, was fastness best for dark shades of nylon chrome, or mordant, dyes primarily wool  fast black, dark dull colors after treatment with metallic salt dyed applied ---salt after treatment---salt reacts with dye to become insoluble excellent colorfastness pollution concern  dye classes dyes used primarily for manufactured fibers basic dyes cationic dyes
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dye positive groups interact with fiber negative groups  early synthetic dyes bright colors, poor laundering fastness acrylic and modified polyester, nylon fugitive tints colors that are not permanent an be used to identify fibers yarns in manufacture removed by washing when processing is complete  disperse dyes manufactured fibers only practical way to dye acetate, polyester
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This note was uploaded on 02/14/2012 for the course HUEC 2040 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '08 term at LSU.

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last section - lastsection Dyeingatdifferentprocessingstages

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