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01-review1-handout - STA 3024 Review of STA 2023(Part 1...

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STA 3024: Review of STA 2023 (Part 1) Douglas Whitaker Statistics Department 11 January 2012 Douglas Whitaker (Statistics Department) STA 3024: Review of STA 2023 (Part 1) 11 January 2012 1 / 105
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Focal Points What are measures of center? What are measures of spread? What are probability distributions? Douglas Whitaker (Statistics Department) STA 3024: Review of STA 2023 (Part 1) 11 January 2012 2 / 105
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What is Statistics? Definition Statistics is the art and science of learning from data. (Hey, that’s the name of the book!) Okay, but what does that mean? We can use statistics for a variety of things such as collecting and interpreting information predicting outcomes based on data making conclusions based on data Douglas Whitaker (Statistics Department) STA 3024: Review of STA 2023 (Part 1) 11 January 2012 4 / 105
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What is Statistics? Statistics is a set of tools with three major uses: design - designing studies and experiments to collect data description - summarizing and describing the patterns found in the data inference - making decisions and/or predictions based on the data Math, specifically probability , is the language we use to develop the methods used in statistics. Douglas Whitaker (Statistics Department) STA 3024: Review of STA 2023 (Part 1) 11 January 2012 5 / 105
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Let’s talk about Data Definition Data is the term we use for the information we gather from surveys and experiments. Note: “data” is a plural word, so we say things like “The data are being collected.” The singular is “datum”. Douglas Whitaker (Statistics Department) STA 3024: Review of STA 2023 (Part 1) 11 January 2012 7 / 105
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Let’s talk about data When we collect data, we collect it in terms of variables . Definition A variable is any characteristic that is observed for the subjects in a study. What does this mean? Let’s look at some examples. Douglas Whitaker (Statistics Department) STA 3024: Review of STA 2023 (Part 1) 11 January 2012 8 / 105
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Variables Example: These are examples of variables: Number of pets in family Choice of beer to buy (domestic or import) County of residence Distance to school (in miles) Diet choice (vegetarian, nonvegetarian) Weight of a dog Number of books in a backpack Douglas Whitaker (Statistics Department) STA 3024: Review of STA 2023 (Part 1) 11 January 2012 9 / 105
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Variables Variables come in a few types: categorical - each observation belongs to a set of categories quantitative - each observation takes on a numerical value that represents different magnitudes of the variable Quantitative variables can of one of two types: discrete - the possible values form a set of separate numbers (e.g. { 1 , 2 , 3 , . . . } or { 0 , 1 , 4 , 9 } ) continuous - the possible values form an interval Douglas Whitaker (Statistics Department) STA 3024: Review of STA 2023 (Part 1) 11 January 2012 10 / 105
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Variables Example: Are these variables categorical or quantitative? If they are quantitative, are they discrete or continuous?
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