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nd_notes--severe_weather_hazards[1] - highs to equatorial...

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Severe Weather Hazards—2/19/08 What drives weather on Earth? Water and Heat Water Ionic bonds—unshared electron pairs Oxygen weak negative Hydrogen weak positive Bipolar—positive and negative ends Universal Solvent (highest electric constant) Highest latent heat of vaporization o Lots of energy/heat needed to change phase Highest latent heat of fusion o Lots of energy released when change to harder phase (gas liquid solid) Exists on three phases on earth Solid is less dense than liquid Highest heat capacity Highest surface tension Highest heat conduction o Transfer of heat Is the reason life is possible Heat Greatest at equator, least at poles o Solar energy hitting the earth greatest at equator because of direct concentration of sunlight Coriolis effect o The earth is spinning Trade winds—0 degrees - 30 degrees-air masses move across Earth from subtropical
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Unformatted text preview: highs to equatorial lows (Hadley Cell) • Polar easterlies—air moving away from the poles (Polar Cells) • Westerlies—trade winds descend in subtropics • Abiabatic Processes o Temperature change w/o loss of heat Warm air expands and rises Cold air loses temperature w/o losing heat Contracts and warms • Pressure gradient over polar • Jet Stream o Tropical atmosphere absorbs heat, air expands, becomes less dense, rises, forms thick mass o Polar air cold, lies near surface o Interaction makes “jet stream” o Belt of winds 1000 km wide, flows 120-300 mph o Changes seasonally (over Canada in summer and US in winter) • When air masses meet o Cold fronts cold air lifts warm air to high altitudes, produces thunderstorms o Warm Fronts warm air driven on top of cold, produces clouds/rain...
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