L6 - midterm 17 multiple choices 4 short questions 2...

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Unformatted text preview: midterm 17 multiple choices 4 short questions 2 labeling question 2 experiment related questions Some tips for the midterm 1. Read all of the assigned reading including side boxes and image/graphic captions. Pay extra attention to the material that was emphasized in lecture. 2. Be able to label and explain important figures. 3. Know the location and function of growth factors and neurotransmitters that were discussed in class. This includes when they act, what they act on and how they are activated. Make a fairly in depth profile for each. 4. Be able to explain the paper methods, discussions and figures. Lecture 6: Repair and Regeneration in the Nervous System (outline) I. Three types of neural repair. II. Regeneration in PNS. III. Regeneration in CNS. IV. Adult neurogenesis. Required reading: Purves et al. Ch25 Transneuronal degeneration (retrograde) 7 1. Degeneration of nerve terminal; 2. Wallerian degeneration of axon distal stump; 3. Myelin degenerates; 4. Phagocytic cells invade; 5. Cell body undergoes chromatolysis, nucleus moves to an eccentric position; 6. Presynaptic terminals on chromatolytic neurons withdraw and enwrapped by glial processes; 7,8. Inputs and the targets of the injured neuron atrophy and degenerate. Neurodegeneration Normal Degeneration Lecture 6: Repair and Regeneration in the Nervous System (outline) I. Three types of neural repair. 1. Regrowth of peripheral axons 2. Repair of existing neurons in injury site in CNS 3. New neuron genesis Regrowth of peripheral axons Injury and degeneration happens to peripheral projecting axons. Cell body (either in PNS or CNS) is preserved. Reactivation of the developmental processes axon growth, synapse formation and elimination. Example: peripheral sensory or motor nerve regeneration. Accomplishable and usually clinically successful. Repair of existing neurons at injury site in CNS Damaged neurons do not survive. Glia cells become reactive and formation of glia scar. Loss of trophic support due to neurite damage, and activation of inflammatory cytokines suppress reactivation of cellular mechanisms for axonal and dendrite growth and synapse formation. Repair is very hard to achieve. New neuron genesis Rare but can happen new neurons may replace the functions of the dead neurons. Neurogenesis is due to the existence of multipotent neural stem cells in adult brain. Stem cells are present in a niche that retain an appropriate environment for the genesis and differentiation of new neurons and glia. Regenerating tissue preserves the capacity to recapitulate the migration, process outgrowth and synapse formation. Lecture 6: Repair and Regeneration in the Nervous System (outline) I. Three types of neural repair....
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L6 - midterm 17 multiple choices 4 short questions 2...

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