fely econ dev chapter 7 pwrpnt

fely econ dev chapter 7 pwrpnt - Chapter 7 – Population...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 7 – Population Growth and Economic Development: Causes. Consequences and Controversies Structure of the World’s Population 1. Geographic region – more than three-quarters of the world’s people live in developing countries; fewer than one person in four lives in an economically developed nation. Given current population growth rates in different parts of the world (significantly higher in the LDCs), the regional distribution of the world’s population will inevitably change by 2050. By that time, it is likely that there will be almost 6.5 billion more people on earth than in 1950 and about 3 billion more than in 2000. Africa will experience the largest percentage increase (184%), and it projected population of 2.1 billion will be almost three times its 1998 population and almost 10 times its 1950 population. Latin America and Asia are projected to grow by 70% and 50% respectively. Together these three continents will probably hold over 88% of the world’s population by 2050, as contrasted with 70% in 1950 and 82% in 1998. Correspondingly, the proportion of the world’s population living in Europe, the former Soviet Union, and North America will have fallen from 17% to less than 12% of the total. 2. Fertility and Mortality Trends – the rate of population increase is quantitatively measured as the percentage yearly net relative increase (or decrease, in which case it is negative) in population size due to natural increase and net international migration. Natural increase simply measures the excess of births over deaths or, in more technical terms, the difference between fertility and mortality . Net international migration is of negligible, through growing, importance today (although in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries it was an extremely important source of population increase in North America, Australia and New Zealand and corresponding decrease in Western Europe). As just noted, the major source of difference in population growth rates between the less developed and the more developed countries is the sizable difference in their birthrates. The total fertility rate (the average number of children a woman would have assuming that current age-specific birthrates remain constant throughout her childbearing years, 15-45 years of age) remains very high in Africa and Western Asia. Infant mortality rates and the AIDS epidemic, Africa has the lowest life expectancy, 47 years, while in the high income countries life expectancy at birth now average about 78 yeas. Nevertheless, for many LDC’s infant mortality rates have declined dramatically over the past few decades creating the basis for longer life expectancies. In East Asia and Latin America life expectancies have reached an impressive 70 years. 3. Age Structure and Dependency Burdens – world population today is very youthful, particularly in the developing world. Children under the age of 15 constitute almost 40% of the total population of the developing countries but less than 20% of the population of developed nations. In countries with such an age structure, the youth dependency ratio...
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This note was uploaded on 02/12/2012 for the course ECON 101 taught by Professor Mr.you during the Spring '09 term at SUNY Farmingdale.

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fely econ dev chapter 7 pwrpnt - Chapter 7 – Population...

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