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Unformatted text preview: 1.1 Organisms have 5 things in common- Energy, Cells, Information (hereditary/genetic), Replication (This one is a little different and deals with species as a whole because, for instance, I don’t have to reproduce to stay alive) , Evolution Viruses are not living because they don’t reproduce, they infect the host cells and the host cells reproduce, also, the host produces the energy for it. 1.2 Theory-Explanation for a general class of phenomena or observations The first cell theory was tested with corkscrew then pond water Cell-organized compartment bound by a plasma membrane that contains chemicals Cell theory-All organisms are composed of one or more cells and come from pre-existing cells Spontaneous Generation-A hypothesis (proposed explanation) All-cells-from-cells-A hypothesis cells are produced when pre-existing cells divide and grow Prediction-something that can be measured and must be correct if a hypothesis is valid Exp. flask with chicken broth... swan neck vs. straight neck... swan neck keeps cells from falling into flask on air particles... proved spontaneous generation wrong 1.3 Evolution-A change in the population characteristics, species are related and have changed over time Natural Selection-If certain heritable traits lead to increase success in producing offspring, then those traits become more common in the population over time, so the population’s characteristics change as a result of natural selection acting on individuals. Artificial Selection-Changes in populations that occur when humans select certain individuals to produce the most offspring Evolution occurs when heritable variation leads to differential success in reproduction Exp. corn and highest protein Fitness-the ability of an individual to produce offspring Adaption-a trait that increases the fitness of an individual in an environment 1.4 Speciation-when a population of species diverges to form a new species Tree of life-documentation of what species came from what Phylogeny-genealogical relationships btw organisms, they study this by looking at the rRNA molecule which can show how closely related species are by it’s molecular pattern Phylogeny tree shows how closely related species are, like the family tree, if species are close, then they have a more recent common ancestor The tree of life says that the 3 fundamental lineages of organisms are: the bacteria, the archaea, and the eukarya Archaea-one celled organism, can survive high temperatures, either bacteria came from this, or this came from bacteria Eukaryotes-cells that have a nucleus, many of them are multicellular Prokaryotes-cells that lack a nucleus, according to tree of life, this came first This tree showed that fungi are more closely related to animals than plants The understanding of this tree is dynamic Taxonomy-the effort to name and classify organisms Taxon-any named group Domain-a new taxonomic category & 3 domains of life are the Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya Phylum-major lineages within each domain, each one is considered a major...
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