30.4-39.6 - 30.4 For plants to live on land, they had to...

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30.4 For plants to live on land, they had to develop the cuticle, pores, stomata, and water conduction tissues. Once, they were on land they had to reproduce efficiently, so they developed gametangia, retained embryos, pollen, seeds, and flowers. The species in Green Algae have a bright green chloroplast, which has a double membrane. It contains chlorophyll a and b and synthesizes starch. The cell wall is made of cellulose. They live in ocean and freshwater environments, and sometimes at near-freezing temperatures. They also have mutualistic relationships with other organisms. CAn you name one of the two that the book mentions? Algae provide food for protists and protists provide protection to the algae The fungus protects the algae or cyanobacteria in lichen from drying out and the algae provides sugars. Non-vascular plants are short and don’t have lignin that supports vascular tissue, but they anchor themselves to trees or rocks with structures called rhizoids. Their sperm swims to eggs and the spores are dispersed by the wind. Seedless Vascular plants have lignin that reinforces the cell. They live in the sporophyte phase longer than the gametophyte phase. They depend on water for the sperm to swim to the eggs. The sporophytes develop on and are nourished by the gametophyte. Seed Plants produce pollen grains and seeds. Seeds are the mature form of an ovule, which disperse the sporophytes to different locations. Pollen grains produce sperm and travel through the air. Seed plants can either be annual and have a small life span or be perennial and grow for years. Ulvophytes are apart of Green algae. They can be either multicellular or unicellular. Some live in freshwater and some are marine species. They reproduce both asexually and sexually. Sexual re- production leaves a dormant cell in the winter.The spores use a flagella to swim and are depend- ent on water. Multicellular species have alternation of generations and unicellular species are diploid only as zygotes. Coleochaetes are very small and grow as flat cells. They are considered multicellular because they are photosynthetic, have reproductive cells, and contain plasmodesmata. They only live in freshwater and attach themselves to plants. If they use asexual reproduction they have flagel- lated spores. For sexual reproduction the parent retains the egg and nourishes it after fertilization. There is no alternation of generations and the only diploid stage is the zygote.
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30.4-39.6 - 30.4 For plants to live on land, they had to...

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