Chapter 5 Notes

Chapter 5 Notes - Chapter 5 Notes An Introduction to...

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Chapter 5 Notes An Introduction to Carbohydrates Four types of macromolecules that are prominent in today’s cells o Proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, and lipids Carbohydrate: sugar; encompasses the monomers called monosaccharides, small polymers called oligosaccharides, and the large polymers called polysaccharides There are “carbon-hydrate” groups in many carbohydrates. Carbonyl and hydroxyl, carbon to hydrogen 5.1 Sugars as Monomers Sugars are fundamental to life o Provide chemical energy in cells o Furnish some of the molecular building blocks required for the synthesis of larger, more complex compounds How Monosaccharides Differ Monosaccharide: simple sugar Carbonyl group on either side of the molecule making an aldehyde sugar If the carbonyl group is within the carbon chain, it forms a ketone sugar The presence of carbonyl group along with multiple hydroxyl groups provides an array of functional groups in sugars Number of carbons vary; numbered consecutively in monosaccharides Trioses: three carbon sugars Pentose: ribose; five carbons Hexose: glucose; six carbon sugar Monosaccharides also vary in the spatial arrangement of their atoms o Distinguished by the configuration of its hydroxyl function groups Because the spatial arrangements differ, so do the functions (like glucose vs. galactose) In aqueous solutions, sugars form ring structures Depending on whether it is below or above the plane of the ring, the molecules form alpha-glucose or beta-glucose ***many distinct monosaccharides exist because so many aspects of their structure are variable: aldose or ketose placement of the carbonyl group, variation in carbon number, different arrangements of hydroxyl groups in space, and alternative ring forms. Each monosaccharide has a unique structure and function Monosaccharides and Chemical Evolution Monosaccharides are readily synthesized under conditions that mimic the Prebiotic soup The suspect that investigators are synthesized on dust particles and other debris in interstellar space and could have rained down onto Earth as the planet was forming, as well as being synthesized in the hot water near undersea volcanoes Most researchers maintain that a wide diversity of monosaccharides existed in the prebiotic soup
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5.2 The Structure of Polysaccharides Polysaccharides: polymers that form when monosaccharides are linked together Disaccharides: the simplest polysaccharides consist of two sugars o The two monomers may be identical or different ***Simple sugars polymerize when a condensation reaction occurs between two hydroxyl groups, resulting in a covalent bond called a glycosidic linkage Because glycosidic linkages form between hydroxyl groups, and because every
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Chapter 5 Notes - Chapter 5 Notes An Introduction to...

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