Exam 2 Study Guide

Exam 2 Study Guide - N311 Exam#2 Study Guide Donnelly...

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N311 Exam #2 Study Guide Donnelly – Ethics and cross-cultural nursing Sources of ethical dilemmas – cultural misunderstandings and language differences The ANA serves as a guide for nurses and ethical issues Recommends that ethnic resources and translators be used, orientation of new employees and ongoing staff development regarding cultural misunderstandings; increased education in academic settings regarding transcultural nursing. Callahan – Universalism & Particularism A universal – a virtue, rule, principle or a moral perspective that is valid under most circumstances for most people, most of the time Reviews evolution of the bioethics field and the early search for principles (U.N. declaration of human rights, subsequent deference to rights, situation ethics (no universal moral rules or rights), individualism; The drive for universalism – the 4 principles of bioethics Emanuel – Health care reform: Still possible Concern – health care costs are increasing; the number of uninsured Americans are increasing while the range of health benefits for those who are insured are going down; tight state budgets close look at Medicaid budgets; Politics is a huge factor Recommendations - retain a private health care delivery system; break the employer-health insurance link; some kind of managed delivery system is here to stay; permit a multi-tiered delivery system as long as the bottom rung is sensible Rhodes – A review of ethical issues in transplantation Organ procurement – “do no harm”; brain death v. cortical death; required request, presumed consent and required donation The use of living organ donors – consent, use, autonomy, acceptability of the donation Organ sales – should an incentive be given; unjust distribution; help w/ financial comp for donors Organ allocation – not enough organs for everyone who needs one. So who gets one? Urgency of need, length of time on list, compatibility, Free riders – those not eligible to donate and those not willing do donate; should they be denied access to benefit from the kindness of strangers w/o being willing or able to give anything in return? Duties and debts – does the system own those who donate? Duties to transplant patients? Do those who receive an organ donation owe the system? Research – research projects designed to extend the treatment to a greater pool of patients and at the same time relax the restrictions on research that would hold a promise of somehow augmenting the organ supply, including split liver transplantation, xenografts, and procuring organs from non-heart-beating donors. Hollingsworth – Ethical considerations in prenatal sex selection Preferences in sex selection are driven by the benefits of having a child of a particular sex, although the perceived benefits may differ by country.
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The use sex determination tests to initially diagnose sex-linked diseases; or with other
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Exam 2 Study Guide - N311 Exam#2 Study Guide Donnelly...

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