Anatomy Part IV - Human Anatomy Unit I V Lecture Notes: A....

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Human Anatomy Unit I V Lecture Notes : A. General Structure a. Upper Respiratory a.i. Nose (nasal cavities and sinuses) a.ii. Mouth (oral-accessory) a.iii. Pharynx (throat) b. Lower Respiratory b.i. Larynx b.ii. Trachea b.iii. Bronchi b.iv. Bronchioles b.v. Alveolar Duct and Sacs b.vi. Alveoli b.vi.1. From Nose down to Bronchioles= Conducting b.vi.2. 4,5,6 are respiratory= Involved in gas exchange b.vi.3. The mouth dehydrates it doesn’t humidify/filter. B. Functions a. Provide a large area for gas exchange . This area is all of the alveoli. If they were spread out= half a tennis court. This is also Nutrient exchange. b. Ventilation . This is the act of moving air in and out (breathing). c. Protection : Protecting the repiratory surfaces. Protecting from dehydration (warm and moisten). Except mouth- we are dehydrating the membrane. Protects you against temperature changes. d. Defense : protects you from microorganisms e. Sound production : Controlled by Broca’s area. f. Aids in regulation of pH of body fluids C. Respiratory Epithelium a. Pseudo stratified ciliated columnar (PSCC) b. All cells meet basement membrane. c. Scattered among these cells are “goblet cells” c.i. Goblet cells produce large quantities of mucous. It traps microbes, so that they don’t get down into the lungs. d. Mucous glands: create mucous, constantly being produced. Causes respiratory system to maintain moist. e. Stem Cells, along basement membrane, they will replace the normal PSCC or the goblet cells. D. Upper Portion a. Nose a.i. Nostril is called external nare. Nostril epithelium is covered by hair- which keeps large particulates out of respiratory system. Inside external nare there is a region called the vestibule (area kids pick nose). Then we enter the nasal cavity. a.i.1. Nasal cavity: a.i.1.a. Bounded by bone, large region. a.i.1.b. Divided into Left and Right a.i.1.c. The floor of the nasal cavity is formed by the hard palate. The hard palate is made up of: palatine processes of maxillae, and the two little palatine bones. a.i.1.d. The lateral walls of the Nasal Cavity are formed by three boney masses, called the Nasal Conchae (3 of them: superior, middle and inferior) also know as terbinate bones. a.i.1.e. Pleural meatus: air flows between conchae.
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a.i.1.f. Internal Nare: when we exhale, air goes through internal then cavity, then externae. b. Pharynx b.i. Nasopharynx b.i.1. Above soft palate. b.i.2. Repiratory only, lined with PSCC b.ii. Oropharynx b.ii.1. Between soft palate and the tongue. b.ii.2. Digestive. b.ii.3. Uncaraternized squamous epithelium: Resists abrasion. b.iii. Laryngopharynx b.iii.1. On bottom. b.iii.2. NO PSCC Stratified Squamous Epithellium (non keratinized) b.iv. Hyoid Bone: b.iv.1. At base of tongue, connected to the larynx. b.iv.2.
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Anatomy Part IV - Human Anatomy Unit I V Lecture Notes: A....

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