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BI 202 FINAL NOTES - November 9 2010 CHAPTER 16 RESPIRATION...

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November 9, 2010 CHAPTER 16: RESPIRATION I. Respiratory Passageways a. Fig 16.4 b. Anatomy b.i. Conducting Zone b.i.1. From nasal cavities, down through pharynx and trachea, down through bronchial tree, until get to respiratory bronchioles b.i.2. Functions: b.i.2.a. Moves air b.i.2.b. Filters air b.i.2.c. Warms the air b.i.2.d. Humidify the air b.i.3. Passageways are lined with mucus, cilia sweep mucous to back of throat where you swallow it= mucous elevator b.i.4. When have too much mucus, you cough b.i.5. Smoking paralyzes those cilia, so have problems removing mucous=smoker’s cough b.ii. Respiratory Zone b.ii.1. Where gas exchange takes place b.ii.2. Includes: respiratory bronchioles and alveoli b.ii.2.a. Primary place of gas exchange=alveoli b.iii. Fig 16.1 (anatomy of alveolus)
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b.iii.1. Macrophages: eat debris b.iii.2. Type 1 alveolar cells: make up walls b.iii.3. Type 2 alveolar cells II. Ventilation a. The process of moving air into and out of the lungs b. Fig. 16.7 c. Serous Membranes c.i. Membranes that produce fluid c.ii. 2 types: c.ii.1. Visceral pleura: a serous membrane that is found covering the entire outside of the lungs c.ii.2. Parietal pleura: inside lining of thoracic cavity c.iii. Pleural cavity: space between visceral and parietal pleura—no space only fluid (pleural fluid) c.iv. Both membranes are wet (hand suction example) so have much greater suction—when try to pull apart, suction occurs c.iv.1. Hold the lungs against the thoracic cavity wall (THERE ARE NO MUSCLES ATTACHED TO THE LUNGS) c.iv.2. When thoracic cavity wall moves away from lungs (breathing in), the pressure decreases, which causes the lung to expand c.iv.3. If let thoracic cavity wall move in (exhale), lung gets smaller November 10, 2010 c.v. Pressure inside the lung—INTRAPULMONARY, OR INTRAALVEOLAR PRESSURE c.vi. Pressure outside lung—intrapleural pressure c.vii. TRANSPULMONARY PRESSURE—the difference between the intrapulmonary and the intra pleural pressures d. When the diaphragm contracts (a muscle that when relaxed is dome-shaped), it flattens e. Intercostals muscles make ribcage move up and out f. Gases are going to move from higher to lower pressure g. Boyle’s Law g.i. The pressure of a given quantity of gas is inversely proportional to its volume
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g.ii. Ex: blow air into balloon, squeeze balloon, pressure increases as space gets smaller g.iii. If increase the size of lungs, increase size of thoracic cavity which increases size of lungs, pressure decreases (if pressure goes down below atmospheric, then air moves into the lungs) g.iv. If decrease size of lungs, pressure gets higher; if it gets higher than atmospheric, air moves out g.v. If pressure in lungs is equal to atmospheric, nothing happens g.vi. Fig 16.14 III. Physical Properties of the Lung that Affects Ventilation a. Compliance: measure of how distensible (stretchy) the lungs are a.i. Want lungs to be stretchy a.ii. If decrease compliance decrease ventilation a.ii.1. If have increase in tissue proteins in the lungs a.ii.1.a. If there’s irritation of the lining or have foreign materials settle into
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